How to format your references using the Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, T. E. (2013). Cell biology. Rapid aging rescue? Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6138), 1299–1300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosnan, S. F., & De Waal, F. B. M. (2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature, 425(6955), 297–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ofstad, T. A., Zuker, C. S., & Reiser, M. B. (2011). Visual place learning in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature, 474(7350), 204–207.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Santander-Syro, A. F., Copie, O., Kondo, T., Fortuna, F., Pailhès, S., Weht, R., … Rozenberg, M. J. (2011). Two-dimensional electron gas with universal subbands at the surface of SrTiO(3). Nature, 469(7329), 189–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bottjer, D. J. (2016). Paleoecology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kilian, J. (Ed.). (2005). Theory of Cryptography: Second Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2005, Cambridge, MA, USA, February 10-12, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3378). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciocchetta, F. (2008). The BlenX Language with Biological Transactions. In C. Priami (Ed.), Transactions on Computational Systems Biology IX (pp. 114–152). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 28). The Up Side Of Feeling Down: New Theory Links Neurotic Thinking To Creativity. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Fiscal Year 2007 Performance Plans (No. GAO-07-146SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray, T. M. (2008). A grounded theory of U.S. Army installation realignment and closure leadership characteristics (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, June 20). In Budget Crisis, States Take Aim At Pension Costs. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson, 2013, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brosnan & De Waal, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ofstad, Zuker, & Reiser, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Santander-Syro et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationPharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0163-7258
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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