How to format your references using the Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, G. H. (2015). Evolution: An avian explosion. Nature, 526(7574), 516–517.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robertson, M. P., & Scott, W. G. (2007). The structural basis of ribozyme-catalyzed RNA assembly. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5818), 1549–1553.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens, I. E. L., Elias, J. S., & Shao-Horn, Y. (2015). CATALYSIS. The importance of being together. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 164–165.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chichak, K. S., Cantrill, S. J., Pease, A. R., Chiu, S.-H., Cave, G. W. V., Atwood, J. L., & Stoddart, J. F. (2004). Molecular borromean rings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1308–1312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J. G. (2013). Coal-Fired Power Generation Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Liddle, S. W., Schewe, K.-D., Tjoa, A. M., & Zhou, X. (Eds.). (2012). Database and Expert Systems Applications: 23rd International Conference, DEXA 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 7447). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blair, J. A. (2012). What Is the Right Amount of Support for a Conclusion? In C. W. Tindale (Ed.), Groundwork in the Theory of Argumentation: Selected Papers of J. Anthony Blair (pp. 51–59). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 29). Bioengineers Build Circuit Board Modeled On The Human Brain. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information (No. PAD-77-14). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phillips, T. L. (2012). “Outsider Within” Narratives of Diversity Leadership: An Exploratory Case Study of Executive Women of Color (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R., & Harris, E. A. (2015, October 29). Charge of Duct-Tape Assault at a School. New York Times, p. A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Robertson & Scott, 2007; Thomas, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robertson & Scott, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Stephens, Elias, & Shao-Horn, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chichak et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationPharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0163-7258
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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