How to format your references using the Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackas, D. L. (2011). Does blending of chlorophyll data bias temporal trend? Nature, 472(7342), E4-5; discussion E8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jernvall, J., & Fortelius, M. (2002). Common mammals drive the evolutionary increase of hypsodonty in the Neogene. Nature, 417(6888), 538–540.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lassus, P., Opitz-Araya, X., & Lazebnik, Y. (2002). Requirement for caspase-2 in stress-induced apoptosis before mitochondrial permeabilization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5585), 1352–1354.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sun, Y., Zhou, G., Gui, T., Shimokado, A., Nakanishi, M., Oikawa, K., Sato, F., & Muragaki, Y. (2014). Elevated serum 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 level attenuates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction in kl/kl mice. Scientific Reports, 4, 6563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Makishima, A. (2016). Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gorlewski, J. A., & Gorlewski, D. A. (Eds.). (2012). Making it Real: Case Stories for Secondary Teachers. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Murphy, M. (2006). The Role of Assortative Mating on Population Growth in Contemporary Developed Societies. In F. C. Billari, T. Fent, A. Prskawetz, & J. Scheffran (Eds.), Agent-Based Computational Modelling: Applications in Demography, Social, Economic and Environmental Sciences (pp. 61–84). Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 13). New Evidence Suggests Earth Has Vast Subterranean Oceans. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Information on the National School Safety Center (GGD-85-74). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Balakrishnan, G. (2017). Cognitive radio cooperative spectrum sensing [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (1995, August 13). Children’s Books. New York Times, 723.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mackas, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Jernvall & Fortelius, 2002; Mackas, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jernvall & Fortelius, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lassus et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sun et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationPharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0163-7258
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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