How to format your references using the Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riordan, M. (2001). The suspense of strangeness. Nature, 409(6819), 457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovaleva, E. G., & Lipscomb, J. D. (2007). Crystal structures of Fe2+ dioxygenase superoxo, alkylperoxo, and bound product intermediates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 453–457.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen, L., Ratcliffe, J. M., & Surlykke, A. (2013). Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature, 493(7430), 93–96.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bryant, Z., Stone, M. D., Gore, J., Smith, S. B., Cozzarelli, N. R., & Bustamante, C. (2003). Structural transitions and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA. Nature, 424(6946), 338–341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, P. (2015). Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nocedal, J. (2006). Numerical Optimization (S. J. Wright, Ed.; Second Edition). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Di Fiore, F., Van Reeth, F., Patterson, J., & Willis, P. (2006). Highly Stylised Drawn Animation. In T. Nishita, Q. Peng, & H.-P. Seidel (Eds.), Advances in Computer Graphics: 24th Computer Graphics International Conference, CGI 2006, Hangzhou, China, June 26-28, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 36–53). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 5). Hubble Witnesses The Dying Moments Of A Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Transportation Security Administration: Clear Policies and Oversight Needed for Designation of Sensitive Security Information (GAO-05-677). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newsome, G. A. (2009). Novel instrumentation and method development for a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, April 27). Top Safety From L.S.U. With Reputation for Intensity Drops Into Jets’ Lap at No. 6. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Riordan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kovaleva & Lipscomb, 2007; Riordan, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kovaleva & Lipscomb, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Jakobsen et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bryant et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationPharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0163-7258
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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