How to format your references using the Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ebert, D. (2011). Genomics. A genome for the environment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6017), 539–540.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, P.-W., & Ali, M. M. (2014). Investigating Leggett-Garg inequality for a two level system under decoherence in a non-Markovian dephasing environment. Scientific Reports, 4, 6165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer, T. J., Osborn, T., & Kohl, P. A. (2008). Materials science. High-frequency chip connections. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 756–757.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu, J.-X., Wen, X.-D., Haraldsen, J. T., He, M., Panagopoulos, C., & Chia, E. E. M. (2014). Induced ferromagnetism at BiFeO3/YBa2Cu3O7 interfaces. Scientific Reports, 4, 5368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, G., & Broniatowski, M. (2017). Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 2. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hildt, E., & Franke, A. G. (Eds.). (2013). Cognitive Enhancement: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Vol. 1). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
McCown, D., Reibel, D., & Micozzi, M. S. (2010). The Person of the Teacher. In D. Reibel & M. S. Micozzi (Eds.), Teaching Mindfulness: A Practical Guide for Clinicians and Educators (pp. 91–101). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 3). Disco-Loving Sea Lion Helps Shed Light On Evolutionary Origins Of Music. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Transfer Students: Postsecondary Institutions Could Promote More Consistent Consideration of Coursework by Not Basing Determinations on Accreditation (GAO-06-22). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner, G. (2010). Falls among older adults 65 years and older [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, May 16). A Woman’s Fortune, and Her Ruin. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ebert, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Chen & Ali, 2014; Ebert, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Ali, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Spencer et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationPharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0163-7258
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles