How to format your references using the Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duldig, M. (2006). Astronomy. Cosmic rays track the rotation of the Milky Way. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5798), 429–430.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marks, C. O., & Muller-Landau, H. C. (2007). Comment on “From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5830), 1425; author reply 1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gehring, M., Bubb, K. L., & Henikoff, S. (2009). Extensive demethylation of repetitive elements during seed development underlies gene imprinting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933), 1447–1451.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Forgues, J.-C., Sane, F. B., Blanchard, S., Spietz, L., Lupien, C., & Reulet, B. (2013). Noise intensity-intensity correlations and the fourth cumulant of photo-assisted shot noise. Scientific Reports, 3, 2869.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naylor, W., Laverty, D., & Mallett, J. (2008). The Royal Marsden Hospital Handbook of Wound Management in Cancer Care. Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Doermann, D., & Tombre, K. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of Document Image Processing and Recognition. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rawlings, J. B. (2015). Moving Horizon Estimation. In J. Baillieul & T. Samad (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Systems and Control (pp. 799–804). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, November 2). Poaching Of Elephants Costs African Economies $25 Million Per Year. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Significant Actions Needed to Address Long-standing Financial Management Problems (GAO-04-754T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Russo, R. A. (2009). Using a socio -cultural framework to evaluate farmland preservation policy success in Maryland [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Adkins, M. (2015, January 11). Where Elmo’s People Shop. New York Times, MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duldig, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Duldig, 2006; Marks & Muller-Landau, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marks & Muller-Landau, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Gehring et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Forgues et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationPharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0163-7258
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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