How to format your references using the Pharmacological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.W. Singer, Military robotics and ethics: a world of killer apps, Nature. 477 (2011) 399–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Bloom, A. Joglekar, Towards building a chromosome segregation machine, Nature. 463 (2010) 446–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Torres, A.J. West, G. Li, Sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution as a source of CO2 over geological timescales, Nature. 507 (2014) 346–349.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.S. Mansy, J.P. Schrum, M. Krishnamurthy, S. Tobé, D.A. Treco, J.W. Szostak, Template-directed synthesis of a genetic polymer in a model protocell, Nature. 454 (2008) 122–125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Gavin, T. Porter, Female Aggression, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
A. Gorbenko, A. Romanovsky, V. Kharchenko, eds., Software Engineering for Resilient Systems: 5th International Workshop, SERENE 2013, Kiev, Ukraine, October 3-4, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Weir, D. Manter, W. Kofer, Microbes: A New Frontier in Tropical Chemical Biology, in: J.M. Vivanco, T. Weir (Eds.), Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacological Research.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Health Check: What Are The Risks Of Drinking Before You Know You’re Pregnant?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Noise: Costs of Phasing Out Noisy Aircraft, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.N. Beechey, The politics of deservingness: Discourses of gender, race, *class, and age in the 2005 Social Security debates, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr, Man Convicted of Murder in Patz Case Is Sentenced to 25 Years to Life, New York Times. (2017) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacological Research
AbbreviationPharmacol. Res.
ISSN (print)1043-6618

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