How to format your references using the Pharmacological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Bloch, Quantum coherence and entanglement with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, Nature. 453 (2008) 1016–1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Roelofs, P.J. Van Haastert, Genes lost during evolution, Nature. 411 (2001) 1013–1014.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Hembacher, F.J. Giessibl, J. Mannhart, Force microscopy with light-atom probes, Science. 305 (2004) 380–383.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Chaudhry, D. Rudra, P. Treuting, R.M. Samstein, Y. Liang, A. Kas, A.Y. Rudensky, CD4+ regulatory T cells control TH17 responses in a Stat3-dependent manner, Science. 326 (2009) 986–991.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Omura, A. Mallik, N. Matsuo, MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
P. Belin, S. Campanella, T. Ethofer, eds., Integrating Face and Voice in Person Perception, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Yang, J. Yang, Dominance-based Rough Sets in “*” Incomplete Information System, in: J. Yang (Ed.), Incomplete Information System and Rough Set Theory: Models and Attribute Reductions, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 133–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacological Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Find Sharks Have Personalities, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Customs Has Established Effective Year 2000 Program Controls, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.J. Bennett, Exploring the effects of parasocial connection on relaxation exercise persistence in women, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, And Something for Your Dog as Well?, New York Times. (1997) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacological Research
AbbreviationPharmacol. Res.
ISSN (print)1043-6618

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