How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brito L. Analyzing sustainable development goals. Science. 2012;336:1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ashlin A, Ladle RJ. Science communication. Environmental science adrift in the blogosphere. Science. 2006;312:201.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Peltier WR, Liu Y, Crowley JW. Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization. Nature. 2007;450:813–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu Q, D’Silva P, Walter W, Marszalek J, Craig EA. Regulated cycling of mitochondrial Hsp70 at the protein import channel. Science. 2003;300:139–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Laursen GHN, Thorlund J. Business Analytics for Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Stephens G, Mochida S, editors. Modulation of Presynaptic Calcium Channels. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Song J-G, Kim JH, Seo D il, Kim S. Design of a Forecasting Service System for Monitoring of Vulnerabilities of Sensor Networks. In: Kim T-H, Stoica A, Chang R-S, editors. Security-Enriched Urban Computing and Smart Grid: First International Conference, SUComS 2010, Daejeon, Korea, September 15-17, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 34–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Black Bears Charge Towards Tourists At Yellowstone National Park. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Data: NASA’s Future Data Volumes Create Formidable Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-91-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cannon JR. Microwave-supported acid hydrolysis for proteomics [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. Cafeteria Fare, Korean-Style. New York Times. 2010 Apr 18;NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics
AbbreviationPharmacoeconomics
ISSN (print)1170-7690
ISSN (online)1179-2027
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Pharmacology

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