How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Perry ML. BATTERIES. Expanding the chemical space for redox flow batteries. Science. 2015;349:1452.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Enyeart PJ, Ellington AD. Synthetic biology: a yeast for all reasons. Nature. 2011;477:413–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Donner SD, Kandlikar M, Zerriffi H. Environment and development. Preparing to manage climate change financing. Science. 2011;334:908–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Edwards SL, Brough R, Lord CJ, Natrajan R, Vatcheva R, Levine DA, et al. Resistance to therapy caused by intragenic deletion in BRCA2. Nature. 2008;451:1111–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Misra DK. Practical Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Wikander L, Gustafsson C, Riis U, editors. Enlightenment, Creativity and Education: Polities, Politics, Performances. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pollalis C, Charalampou P, Sykas E. Multipath TCP Proxy: Unshackling Network Nodes from Today’s End-to-End Connection Principle. In: Mamatas L, Matta I, Papadimitriou P, Koucheryavy Y, editors. Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 14th IFIP WG 62 International Conference, WWIC 2016, Thessaloniki, Greece, May 25-27, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Mars Stayed Damp Much Later Than We Thought [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/mars-stayed-damp-much-later-than-we-thought/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Air Marshal Service: Additional Actions Needed to Ensure Air Marshals’ Mission Readiness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Sep. Report No.: GAO-16-764.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bauer SL. Work-Life Balanced Culture, Work Flexibility, and Inducements: Impact on Perceived Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intention [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Moving From Team Sport to Lifelong Fitness. New York Times. 2009 Jan 11;LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics
AbbreviationPharmacoeconomics
ISSN (print)1170-7690
ISSN (online)1179-2027
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Pharmacology

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