How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cohen MR. Eppendorf winner. When attention wanders. Science. 2012;338:58–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Skinner G, Gorenstein P. Astronomy (communication arising): black holes, fleas and microlithography. Nature. 2003;426:245–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Storch D, Marquet PA, Gaston KJ. Ecology. Untangling an entangled bank. Science. 2005;307:684–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rogaev EI, Grigorenko AP, Faskhutdinova G, Kittler ELW, Moliaka YK. Genotype analysis identifies the cause of the “royal disease.” Science. 2009;326:817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Davis RA. Demand-Driven Inventory Optimization and Replenishment. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Coventry BJ, editor. Lower Abdominal and Perineal Surgery. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fatemi SH, Folsom TD. Prenatal Viral Infection in Mouse: An Animal Model of Schizophrenia. In: Clelland JD, editor. Genomics, Proteomics, and the Nervous System. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 113–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. NASA Turns Black Hole Telescope Onto the Sun To Capture X-rays From Microflares. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Registered Traveler Program Policy and Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Nov. Report No.: GAO-03-253.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yasami S. Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Taylor Swift’s Single Breaks Spotify Record. New York Times. 2017 Aug 28;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics
ISSN (print)1170-7690
ISSN (online)1179-2027
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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