How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Recruitment blueprint. Nature. 2003;422:95.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Khoury MJ, Ioannidis JPA. Medicine. Big data meets public health. Science. 2014;346:1054–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Acquisti A, Brandimarte L, Loewenstein G. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information. Science. 2015;347:509–14.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Touboul M, Kleine T, Bourdon B, Palme H, Wieler R. Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from W isotopes in lunar metals. Nature. 2007;450:1206–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Taber DF. Organic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Gasteratos A, Vincze M, Tsotsos JK, editors. Computer Vision Systems: 6th International Conference, ICVS 2008 Santorini, Greece, May 12-15, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Robinson B. The Welfare and Education of Left-Behind Children in Western China. In: Lee JC-K, Yu Z, Huang X, Law EH-F, editors. Educational Development in Western China: Towards Quality and Equity. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. p. 97–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Discover How A Single Mutation Can Cause Autism. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Award of Grant by the San Francisco Operations Office of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration for the Energy Awareness Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Oct. Report No.: EMD-78-14.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brecese JA. Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Junction 48. New York Times. 2017 Mar 2;C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics
AbbreviationPharmacoeconomics
ISSN (print)1170-7690
ISSN (online)1179-2027
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Pharmacology

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