How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Primavera JH. Global voices of science: Mangroves, fishponds, and the quest for sustainability. Science. 310(5745), 57–59 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
Petrovic M, Hummel T. Temporal identity in axonal target layer recognition. Nature. 456(7223), 800–803 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieczorek MA, Weiss BP, Stewart ST. An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies. Science. 335(6073), 1212–1215 (2012).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huismans Y, Rouzée A, Gijsbertsen A, et al. Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons. Science. 331(6013), 61–64 (2011).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zinkin J. Rebuilding Trust in Banks. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lee R, editor. Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing 2015. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Svatoš O, Řepa V. Working with Process Abstraction Levels. In: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 15th International Conference, BIR 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, September 15–16, 2016, Proceedings. Řepa V, Bruckner T (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 65–79 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst.

Blog post
Luntz S. Earliest Observations Ever Made Of A Supernova Explosion. IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Department of Education FY 1980 Interagency Fund Transfer Agreements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Negussie H. Integration of indigenous knowledge and cultural practices in early childhood care and education programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: An exploratory case study. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Friedman L, Schwartz J. Warm Gulf Fuels the Rain and Gives It Nowhere to Go. New York Times, A13 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Patent Analyst
AbbreviationPharm. Pat. Anal.
ISSN (print)2046-8954
ISSN (online)2046-8962
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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