How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones DA. Financial pain should focus universities. Nature. 465(7294), 32–33 (2010).
A journal article with 2 authors
Gosciniak J, Tan DTH. Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators. Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Khor B, Gardet A, Xavier RJ. Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature. 474(7351), 307–317 (2011).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ouyang Z, Takáts Z, Blake TA, et al. Preparing protein microarrays by soft-landing of mass-selected ions. Science. 301(5638), 1351–1354 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nations S. The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Blanchard A, Signore M, editors. Frontiers of Cosmology: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on The Frontiers of Cosmology Cargèse, France 8–20 September 2003. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez-de Dios JR, Jimenez-Gonzalez A, de San Bernabe A, Ollero A. Usability Tools. In: A Remote Integrated Testbed for Cooperating Objects. Jimenez-Gonzalez A, San Bernabe A de, Ollero A (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 41–57 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst.

Blog post
Andrew E. Our Brain Sees Known Words As Pictures. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasa SR. Visual Basic Simulation of H2S Removal from Natural Gas at Downhole in an Extraction Well. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices to Enter the Debate Over Lethal Injection. New York Times, A24 (2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Patent Analyst
AbbreviationPharm. Pat. Anal.
ISSN (print)2046-8954
ISSN (online)2046-8962
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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