How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erdik M. Geophysics. Earthquake risk in Turkey. Science. 341(6147), 724–725 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
Paland S, Lynch M. Transitions to asexuality result in excess amino acid substitutions. Science. 311(5763), 990–992 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
Brose U, Williams RJ, Martinez ND. Comment on “Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability.” Science. 301(5635), 918; author reply 918 (2003).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ross JS, Amendt P, Atherton LJ, et al. Lead (Pb) hohlraum: target for inertial fusion energy. Sci. Rep. 3, 1453 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saghyan AS, Langer P. Asymmetric Synthesis of Non&;#x02010;Proteinogenic Amino Acids. Wiley&;#x02010;VCH Verlag GmbH &;#38; Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Rimondini M, editor. Communication in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Senk SL, Tatto MT, Reckase M, Rowley G, Peck R, Bankov K. Knowledge of Future Primary Teachers for Teaching Mathematics: An International Comparative Study. In: International Perspectives on Teacher Knowledge, Beliefs and Opportunities to Learn: TEDS-M Results. Blömeke S, Hsieh F-J, Kaiser G, Schmidt WH (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 61–90 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst.

Blog post
Andrew E. Information Flows In Opposite Directions During Imagination And Reality [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Facility Charges: Program Implementation and the Potential Effects of Proposed Changes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parajuli B. Students’ Motivations towards Volunteerism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Nepal. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Tolstoy Recalled Fondly in Chechen Museum. New York Times, C11 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Patent Analyst
AbbreviationPharm. Pat. Anal.
ISSN (print)2046-8954
ISSN (online)2046-8962
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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