How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wen L. Localized temporal change of the Earth’s inner core boundary. Science. 2006;314:967–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Richmond TJ, Davey CA. The structure of DNA in the nucleosome core. Nature. 2003;423:145–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Valet J-P, Meynadier L, Guyodo Y. Geomagnetic dipole strength and reversal rate over the past two million years. Nature. 2005;435:802–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yanik MF, Cinar H, Cinar HN, Chisholm AD, Jin Y, Ben-Yakar A. Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy. Nature. 2004;432:822.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Braha A, Groza G. Moderne Abwassertechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Sun C, Bednarz T, Pham TD, Vallotton P, Wang D, editors. Signal and Image Analysis for Biomedical and Life Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pattillo J, Youssef N, Butenko S. Clique Relaxation Models in Social Network Analysis. In: Thai MT, Pardalos PM, editors. Handbook of Optimization in Complex Networks: Communication and Social Networks. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 143–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Monster Galaxies Gobble Smaller Neighbors to Bulk Up. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Safety: Passive Restraints Needed to Make Light Trucks Safer. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Nov. Report No.: RCED-90-56.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kern MW. Regional phylogenetic analysis of the myology of primates and correlates in the human skeleton [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM, Sisario B. Radio and Television; Public Broadcasters Fear a ‘Collapse.’ New York Times. 2017 Mar 16;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Medicine
AbbreviationPharmaceut. Med.
ISSN (print)1178-2595
ISSN (online)1179-1993
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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