How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macfarlane AM. Nuclear policy. The overlooked back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Science. 2011;333:1225–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Spergel D, Keating B. Cosmology: The oldest cosmic light. Nature. 2015;518:170–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Liu C, Linde AT, Sacks IS. Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons. Nature. 2009;459:833–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Scopigno T, Ruocco G, Sette F, Monaco G. Is the fragility of a liquid embedded in the properties of its glass? Science. 2003;302:849–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tebbani S, Lopes F, Filali R, Dumur D, Pareau D. CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Etalle S, Truszczyński M, editors. Logic Programming: 22nd International Conference, ICLP 2006, Seattle, WA, USA, August 17-20, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yang X-J, Baleanu D, Machado JAT. Application of the Local Fractional Fourier Series to Fractal Signals. In: Machado JAT, Baleanu D, Luo ACJ, editors. Discontinuity and Complexity in Nonlinear Physical Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 63–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. In Defence Of Racer Snakes – The Demons Of Planet Earth II (They’re Only After A Meal) [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Transit: FTA’s Process for Overseeing Compliance with Federal Civil Rights Requirements Incorporates Key Federal Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Jul. Report No.: GAO-13-697R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fister TW. Activating the art classroom: Combining critical pedagogy, visual culture and socially engaged art to promote agency amongst high school students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J, Hale M, Genzlinger N. O.J., Soviet Spies and a Talking Horse. New York Times. 2016 Dec 5;AR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Medicine
AbbreviationPharmaceut. Med.
ISSN (print)1178-2595
ISSN (online)1179-1993
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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