How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Svejstrup JQ. Transcription. Histones face the FACT. Science. 2003;301:1053–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McCarl BA, Schneider UA. Climate change. Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry. Science. 2001;294:2481–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dawkins MS, Donnelly CA, Jones TA. Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. Nature. 2004;427:342–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kim BJ, Tersoff J, Kodambaka S, Reuter MC, Stach EA, Ross FM. Kinetics of individual nucleation events observed in nanoscale vapor-liquid-solid growth. Science. 2008;322:1070–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chappell D. Parris’s Standard Form of Building Contract. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Kutyniok G, Labate D, editors. Shearlets: Multiscale Analysis for Multivariate Data. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kari J. Cellular Automata, the Collatz Conjecture and Powers of 3/2. In: Yen H-C, Ibarra OH, editors. Developments in Language Theory: 16th International Conference, DLT 2012, Taipei, Taiwan, August 14-17, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 40–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Stage in Cycle of Galaxies [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Modifications: Overestimates of Costs Generate Excess Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-87-199BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Domina NV. Gender and culture influences on leadership perceptions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Girding for Anniversary Of Tragedy in Dallas. New York Times. 2012 Nov 25;A29B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Medicine
AbbreviationPharmaceut. Med.
ISSN (print)1178-2595
ISSN (online)1179-1993
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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