How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Buffett BA. Geophysics. The enigmatic inner core. Science. 2010;328:982–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tabak LA, Collins FS. Sociology. Weaving a richer tapestry in biomedical science. Science. 2011;333:940–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Krüger M, Schenk M, Hommelhoff P. Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip. Nature. 2011;475:78–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Selman C, Lingard S, Gems D, Partridge L, Withers DJ. Comment on “Brain IRS2 signaling coordinates life span and nutrient homeostasis.” Science. 2008;320:1012; author reply 1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Parker JS, Anderson RL. Low-Energy Lunar Trajectory Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Davis B, Kaljurand K, Kuhn T, editors. Controlled Natural Language: 4th International Workshop, CNL 2014, Galway, Ireland, August 20-22, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bruni R, Corradini A, Gadducci F, Lluch Lafuente A, Montanari U. On GS-Monoidal Theories for Graphs with Nesting. In: Engels G, Lewerentz C, Schäfer W, Schürr A, Westfechtel B, editors. Graph Transformations and Model-Driven Engineering: Essays Dedicated to Manfred Nagl on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 59–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Medicine.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Biotech Firm Wants To Trial Gene Editing In Humans In 2017. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: DOT Is Progressing toward a Performance-Based Approach, but States and Grantees Report Potential Implementation Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Jan. Report No.: GAO-15-217.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Stanton B. On location: Race and family in the poetry of Sonia Sanchez, June Jordan, and Cathy Song [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Markowitz JC. There’s Such a Thing as Too Much Neuroscience. New York Times. 2016 Oct 15;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Medicine
AbbreviationPharmaceut. Med.
ISSN (print)1178-2595
ISSN (online)1179-1993
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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