How to format your references using the Petroleum Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D’Amico N. Astronomy. Pinpointing gravity. Science. 2009 Mar 6;323(5919):1299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wignall AE, Herberstein ME. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders. Sci. Rep. 2013 Dec 19;3:3557.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deal RB, Henikoff JG, Henikoff S. Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones. Science. 2010 May 28;328(5982):1161–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chakrapani V, Angus JC, Anderson AB, Wolter SD, Stoner BR, Sumanasekera GU. Charge transfer equilibria between diamond and an aqueous oxygen electrochemical redox couple. Science. 2007 Nov 30;318(5855):1424–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson P. Probabilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Leuchtag HR, editor. Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels: Biophysics of Molecular Excitability. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Cevasco R, Moreno D. Rural Landscapes: The Historical Roots of Biodiversity. In: Agnoletti M, editor. Italian Historical Rural Landscapes: Cultural Values for the Environment and Rural Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 141–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Science.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch How This Insanely Clever Orca Catches A Bird. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area Plan: Fiscal Years 1998-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 May. Report No.: IAP-98-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulido BB. Homes as grounding counterspaces: Mexicana undocumented students utilizing mother-daughter pedagogies of resistance to succeed in higher education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall A. Suspect Pleads Not Guilty in Subway Death. New York Times. 2016 Nov 8;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (D’Amico 2009).
This sentence cites two references (D’Amico 2009; Wignall and Herberstein 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wignall and Herberstein 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chakrapani et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Science
AbbreviationPet. Sci.
ISSN (print)1672-5107
ISSN (online)1995-8226
ScopeEconomic Geology
Geochemistry and Petrology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

Other styles