How to format your references using the Petroleum Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook EJ. Atmospheric science. Tiny bubbles tell all. Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1285–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kramer EM, Donohue K. Evolution. Traversing the adaptive landscape in snapdragons. Science. 2006 Aug 18;313(5789):924–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marsh AG, Maxson RE Jr, Manahan DT. High macromolecular synthesis with low metabolic cost in Antarctic sea urchin embryos. Science. 2001 Mar 9;291(5510):1950–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun F, Wang J, Chen H, Qiao W, Ling L, Long D. Bottom-up catalytic approach towards nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbons/sulfur composites for superior Li-S cathodes. Sci. Rep. 2013 Oct 2;3:2823.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis RJ Sr. Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, Sixth Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Suh YJ, Berndt J, Ohnita Y, Kim BH, Lee H, editors. Real and Complex Submanifolds: Daejeon, Korea, August 2014. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ibach H, Lüth H. Dynamics of Atoms in Crystals. In: Lüth H, editor. Solid-State Physics: An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 83–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Science.

Blog post
Davis J. Use Of CRISPR In First Human Trial Given Green Light In The US [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NTSB Access-to-Aircraft Privileges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Dec. Report No.: OSI-95-12R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alameddine A. Perceptions of executives from seven selected companies of the use of social media in marketing practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. A Short Menu of Longtime Favorites. New York Times. 2007 Apr 1;NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brook 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Brook 2005; Kramer and Donohue 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kramer and Donohue 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Science
AbbreviationPet. Sci.
ISSN (print)1672-5107
ISSN (online)1995-8226
ScopeEconomic Geology
Geochemistry and Petrology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

Other styles