How to format your references using the Petroleum Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gandhi KJK. The best decision I ever made. Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1122.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang C, Grant PS. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael HA, Mulligan AE, Harvey CF. Seasonal oscillations in water exchange between aquifers and the coastal ocean. Nature. 2005 Aug 25;436(7054):1145–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Connor JM, Stoffers P, Wijbrans JR, Shannon PM, Morrissey T. Evidence from episodic seamount volcanism for pulsing of the Iceland plume in the past 70 Myr. Nature. 2000;408(6815):954–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie B, Njikizana T, Coetsee D, Chamboko R, Colyvas B, Hanekom B, et al. 2014 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Giacomo DF, editor. The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights: From Declaration to Binding Instrument. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ohmori T, Hosaka T, Kanome T, Inoue F, Ando K, Hirose T, et al. A Molecular Mechanism of Diminished Binding Activity between 15 bp Deletion Mutant EGFR and c-Cbl Ubiquitin Ligase. In: Tachikawa T, Nose K, Ohmori T, Adachi M, editors. New Trends in the Molecular and Biological Basis for Clinical Oncology. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2009. p. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ebola Claims Lives of Five Study Co-Authors Before Paper Is Published [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tribal Transportation: Better Data Could Improve Road Management and Inform Indian Student Attendance Strategies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 May. Report No.: GAO-17-423.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer MD. Organizational improvisation within an episodic planning model: A systems perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Failure Is an Art Form. New York Times. 2017 Oct 15;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gandhi 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gandhi 2015; Huang and Grant 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Grant 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Connor et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Science
AbbreviationPet. Sci.
ISSN (print)1672-5107
ISSN (online)1995-8226
ScopeEconomic Geology
Geochemistry and Petrology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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