How to format your references using the Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucht, Robert P. 2007. “Chemistry. Femtosecond Lasers for Molecular Measurements.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5822): 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, Todd R., and Elizabeth A. Gerken. 2005. “Creation of Visible Artificial Optical Emissions in the Aurora by High-Power Radio Waves.” Nature 433 (7025): 498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jan, Calvin H., Christopher C. Williams, and Jonathan S. Weissman. 2015. “LOCAL TRANSLATION. Response to Comment on ‘Principles of ER Cotranslational Translocation Revealed by Proximity-Specific Ribosome Profiling.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6240): 1217.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kato, Y. K., R. C. Myers, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom. 2004. “Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5703): 1910–1913.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor, Kieron, and Frederick Aardema. 2011. Clinician’s Handbook for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dobbertin, Hans, Vincent Rijmen, and Aleksandra Sowa, eds. 2005. Advanced Encryption Standard – AES: 4th International Conference, AES 2004, Bonn, Germany, May 10-12, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Vol. 3373. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sato, Chiaki. 2013. “Influences of Water on the Adhesive Properties.” In Design of Adhesive Joints Under Humid Conditions, edited by Lucas F. M. da Silva and Chiaki Sato, 77–94. Advanced Structured Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Study Suggests Fish Oil Supplements Don’t Prevent Mental Decline.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Land Management Systems: Major Software Development Does Not Meet BLM’s Business Needs. AIMD-99-135. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkowitz, Evan Scott. 2013. “Some Novel Phenomena at High Density.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. “Trump Tale of Pershing Killing Muslim Captives ‘Has No Basis in Truth.’” New York Times, August 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucht 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lucht 2007; Pedersen and Gerken 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen and Gerken 2005)
  • Three authors: (Jan, Williams, and Weissman 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kato et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education
ISSN (print)1360-3108
ISSN (online)1460-7018

Other styles