How to format your references using the Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lea, David W. 2015. “Palaeoclimate: Climate Sensitivity in a Warmer World.” Nature 518 (7537): 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan, Russell J. H., and Bradley E. Bernstein. 2012. “Molecular Biology. Genetic Events That Shape the Cancer Epigenome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6088): 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gil, Santiago, Alexander Kott, and Albert-László Barabási. 2014. “A Genetic Epidemiology Approach to Cyber-Security.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5659.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Johnson, Adam P., H. James Cleaves, Jason P. Dworkin, Daniel P. Glavin, Antonio Lazcano, and Jeffrey L. Bada. 2008. “The Miller Volcanic Spark Discharge Experiment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5900): 404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adam, Craig. 2016. Forensic Evidence in Court. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brumme, Rainer, and Partap K. Khanna, eds. 2009. Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems. Vol. 208. Ecological Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubíčková, Veronika. 2016. “Application of Survival Analysis on Analysing the Association Between Chromosomal Aberrations and Carcinoma.” In Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technology, edited by Radim Bris, Jaroslav Majernik, Krzysztof Pancerz, and Elena Zaitseva, 93–102. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Researcher Finds Support For One Of Darwin’s Controversial Theories.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should Be Better Planned. GAO-12-756. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez, Jacqueline A. 2015. “Principal Stress Analysis of Rock Fracture Data from the Long Beach Oil Field, Los Angeles Basin, California.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. “New President for the Long Island Rail Road.” New York Times, June 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lea 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lea 2015; Ryan and Bernstein 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ryan and Bernstein 2012)
  • Three authors: (Gil, Kott, and Barabási 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education
ISSN (print)1360-3108
ISSN (online)1460-7018

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