How to format your references using the Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson, Katharine. 2007. “Nanotech Growing Pains.” Nature 446 (7139): 963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Codelli, Julian A., and Sarah E. Reisman. 2013. “Chemistry. Pactamycin Made Easy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6129): 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ta, Van Duong, Rui Chen, and Han Dong Sun. 2013. “Tuning Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Self-Assembled Polymer Droplets.” Scientific Reports 3: 1362.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Siridechadilok, Bunpote, Christopher S. Fraser, Richard J. Hall, Jennifer A. Doudna, and Eva Nogales. 2005. “Structural Roles for Human Translation Factor EIF3 in Initiation of Protein Synthesis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5753): 1513–1515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dant, Sara. 2016. Losing Eden. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Riis Nielson, Hanne, and Dieter Gollmann, eds. 2013. Secure IT Systems: 18th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2013, Ilulissat, Greenland, October 18-21, 2013, Proceedings. Vol. 8208. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thalmann, Daniel, and Soraia Raupp Musse. 2007. “Virtual Human Animation.” In Crowd Simulation, edited by Soraia Raupp Musse, 59–87. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Rare Wandering Black Hole Spotted Drifting Alone Through A Distant Galaxy.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Energy and Science Reports and Testimony: 1992. RCED-93-131. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reese, Scott Richard. 2012. “Transitioning to the Oboe: Methods and Resources to Assist in Switching to the Oboe from Other Woodwind Instruments.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Olmsted, Sophia A. 1936. “DEPUTY MAYOR IDEA NOT NEW; Tammany Objection to the Charter Plan Regarded as Baseless.” New York Times, November 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanderson 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sanderson 2007; Codelli and Reisman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Codelli and Reisman 2013)
  • Three authors: (Ta, Chen, and Sun 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Siridechadilok et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education
ISSN (print)1360-3108
ISSN (online)1460-7018

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