How to format your references using the Perspectives in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson, M., 2003. Conservation. Fate of Iraqi archaeology. Science 299, 1848–1849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fry, D.P., Söderberg, P., 2013. Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of war. Science 341, 270–273.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cattadori, I.M., Haydon, D.T., Hudson, P.J., 2005. Parasites and climate synchronize red grouse populations. Nature 433, 737–741.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McLellan, J.S., Zheng, X., Hauk, G., Ghirlando, R., Beachy, P.A., Leahy, D.J., 2008. The mode of Hedgehog binding to Ihog homologues is not conserved across different phyla. Nature 455, 979–983.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holt, J., 2013. The Ultimate Daily Show and Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Wolter, K. (Ed.), 2007. Formal Methods and Stochastic Models for Performance Evaluation: Fourth European Performance Engineering Workshop, EPEW 2007, Berlin, Germany, September 27-28, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gomes, J.F.S., Leta, F.R., Costa, P.B., Baldner, F. de O., 2014. Important Parameters for Image Color Analysis: An Overview, in: Rodrigues Leta, F. (Ed.), Visual Computing: Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems, Augmented Vision and Reality. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 81–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Infants Too Young For Vaccines Catch Measles From Unvaccinated Children At Disneyland [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Important Progress Made, But Much Work Remains to Avoid Disruption of Critical Services (No. T-AIMD-99-267). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, J., 2015. Screening for Allelopathic Potential and Self Facilitation in Japanese Hops (Humulus japonicus, Cannabaceae) (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. JUSTICES REJECT U.S. BID TO BLOCK ASSISTED SUICIDE. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fry and Söderberg, 2013; Gibson, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fry and Söderberg, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (McLellan et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Science
AbbreviationPerspect. Sci. (Neth)
ISSN (print)2213-0209
Scope

Other styles