How to format your references using the Perspectives in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strano, M.S., 2012. Chemistry. Functional DNA origami devices. Science 338, 890–891.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kemp, C., Regier, T., 2012. Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles. Science 336, 1049–1054.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ichimura, T., Fujiwara, K., Tanaka, H., 2014. Dual field effects in electrolyte-gated spinel ferrite: electrostatic carrier doping and redox reactions. Sci. Rep. 4, 5818.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dauphas, N., van Zuilen, M., Wadhwa, M., Davis, A.M., Marty, B., Janney, P.E., 2004. Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of early Archean BIFs from Greenland. Science 306, 2077–2080.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tan, Y., 2016. Artificial Immune System Applications in Computersecurity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fikentscher, W., 2013. FairEconomy: Crises, Culture, Competition and the Role of Law, MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito, K., 2007. Water Problem in PEMFC, in: Basu, S. (Ed.), Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 129–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Here’s What Your House Dust Reveals About You [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Biotechnology: Role of Institutional Biosafety Committees (No. RCED-88-64BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lutchman, C., 2008. Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., Goldstein, M., Corkery, M., 2016. Wells Fargo Subpoenaed in Inquiry of Accounts. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strano, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp and Regier, 2012; Strano, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kemp and Regier, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Dauphas et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Science
AbbreviationPerspect. Sci. (Neth)
ISSN (print)2213-0209

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