How to format your references using the Perspectives in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K., 2004. Stars in the making. Nature 429, 786–787.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosegrant, M.W., Cline, S.A., 2003. Global food security: challenges and policies. Science 302, 1917–1919.
A journal article with 3 authors
Head, J.N., Melosh, H.J., Ivanov, B.A., 2002. Martian meteorite launch: high-speed ejecta from small craters. Science 298, 1752–1756.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Joron, M., Frezal, L., Jones, R.T., Chamberlain, N.L., Lee, S.F., Haag, C.R., Whibley, A., Becuwe, M., Baxter, S.W., Ferguson, L., Wilkinson, P.A., Salazar, C., Davidson, C., Clark, R., Quail, M.A., Beasley, H., Glithero, R., Lloyd, C., Sims, S., Jones, M.C., Rogers, J., Jiggins, C.D., ffrench-Constant, R.H., 2011. Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry. Nature 477, 203–206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Narayanasamy, P., 2005. Postharvest Pathogens and Disease Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sabharwal, N., 2014. Automation through Chef Opscode. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Morange, M., 2007. Genetics, Life and Death, in: Fagot-Largeault, A., Rahman, S., Torres, J.M. (Eds.), The Influence of Genetics on Contemporary Thinking. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Jaws Kicked Off Our 40-Year Love Affair With Sharks [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Transportation: Status of GAO’s Open Recommendations on Transportation Policies and Programs (No. RCED-91-112). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, A.J., 2003. Textiles as Indicators of Hopewellian Culture Burial Practices (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Curran, M., 2015. New Yorkers for White Sauce. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Powell, 2004; Rosegrant and Cline, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosegrant and Cline, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Joron et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Science
AbbreviationPerspect. Sci. (Neth)
ISSN (print)2213-0209

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