How to format your references using the Perspectives in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marley, M.S., 2008. Astronomy. Exoplanets--seeing is believing. Science 322, 1335–1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kahl, B.C., Peters, G., 2007. Microbiology. Mayhem in the lung. Science 315, 1082–1083.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, W., Zhang, S., Long, X., 2013. Polarisation control through an optical feedback technique and its application in precise measurements. Sci. Rep. 3, 1992.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fuhrmann, D., Ravignani, A., Marshall-Pescini, S., Whiten, A., 2014. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning. Sci. Rep. 4, 5283.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitrapu, P., 2005. Wideband TDD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Oosterom, P. van, Zlatanova, S., Penninga, F., Fendel, E.M. (Eds.), 2008. Advances in 3D Geoinformation Systems, Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Carrer, A., Giacca, Massimo, Giacca, Mauro, 2013. Molecular Parameters for Prognostic and Predictive Assessment in Colorectal Cancer, in: Manzini, N. de (Ed.), Rectal Cancer: Strategy and Surgical Techniques, Updates in Surgery. Springer, Milano, pp. 41–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Science.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. New Alzheimer’s Drug Could Be The Breakthrough We’ve Been Waiting For [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Telecommunications: Actions Needed for Better Management of Public Safety Spectrum (No. RCED-88-173). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, C., 2017. A Policy Analysis: Assembly Bill 1421 or Laura’s Law (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaplan, T., Shear, M.D., 2017. As Conservatives Grouse, House Passes Disaster Aid and Debt Limit Package. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marley, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kahl and Peters, 2007; Marley, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kahl and Peters, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Fuhrmann et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Science
AbbreviationPerspect. Sci. (Neth)
ISSN (print)2213-0209

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