How to format your references using the Perspectives in Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jasanoff, S., 2010. Science and society. Testing time for climate science. Science 328, 695–696.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor, M.S., Hellberg, M.E., 2003. Genetic evidence for local retention of pelagic larvae in a Caribbean reef fish. Science 299, 107–109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werfel, J., Petersen, K., Nagpal, R., 2014. Designing collective behavior in a termite-inspired robot construction team. Science 343, 754–758.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tian, J., Zhang, F., Cheng, J., Guo, S., Liu, P., Wang, H., 2014. Antidepressant-like activity of adhyperforin, a novel constituent of Hypericum perforatum L. Sci. Rep. 4, 5632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sato, T., Kammen, D.M., Duan, B., Macuha, M., Zhou, Z., Wu, J., Tariq, M., Asfaw, S.A., 2015. Smart Grid Standards. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Kotzé, P., Wong, W., Jorge, J., Dix, A., Silva, P.A. (Eds.), 2009. Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education, IFIP – International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Danciu, D., Răsvan, V., 2009. Gradient Like Behavior and High Gain Design of KWTA Neural Networks, in: Cabestany, J., Sandoval, F., Prieto, A., Corchado, J.M. (Eds.), Bio-Inspired Systems: Computational and Ambient Intelligence: 10th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 24–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Science.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. What You See In Your Peripheral Vision Is Basically An Optical Illusion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Improved Planning and Management of Information Systems Development Needed (No. LCD-74-118). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Grady, C.R., 2009. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Conforto Set For Surgery; Mets Drop 2. New York Times SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jasanoff, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Jasanoff, 2010; Taylor and Hellberg, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Hellberg, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tian et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Science
AbbreviationPerspect. Sci. (Neth)
ISSN (print)2213-0209

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