How to format your references using the Personalized Medicine Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personalized Medicine Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. Maths adds up for Berlin centre. Nature 2002;420:348.
A journal article with 2 authors
Faccenna C, Becker TW. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. Nature 2010;465:602–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagné J-P, Rouleau M, Poirier GG. Structural biology. PARP-1 activation--bringing the pieces together. Science 2012;336:678–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kufer SK, Puchner EM, Gumpp H, Liedl T, Gaub HE. Single-molecule cut-and-paste surface assembly. Science 2008;319:594–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lütolf-Carroll C, Antti Pirnes, Withers LLP. From Innovation to Cash Flows. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Zschocke J, Gibson KM, Brown G, Morava E, Peters V, editors. JIMD Reports - Volume 12. vol. 12. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Binding P, Ćurgus B. Riesz Bases of Root Vectors of Indefinite Sturm-Liouville Problems with Eigenparameter Dependent Boundary Conditions, I. In: Langer M, Luger A, Woracek H, editors. Operator Theory and Indefinite Inner Product Spaces: Presented on the occasion of the retirement of Heinz Langer in the Colloquium on Operator Theory, Vienna, March 2004, Basel: Birkhäuser; 2006, p. 75–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personalized Medicine Universe.

Blog post
Andrew E. Silver Shines As Antibacterial For Medical Implants. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Office of Thrift Supervision’s Efforts to Ensure Thrift Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burns D. Measuring the Outcome of At-Risk Students on Biology Standardized Tests When Using Different Instructional Strategies. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich N. Just Roll, Baby. New York Times 2013:MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonalized Medicine Universe
AbbreviationPers. Med. Universe
ISSN (print)2186-4950

Other styles