How to format your references using the Personalized Medicine Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personalized Medicine Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gintis H. Behavior. Punishment and cooperation. Science 2008;319:1345–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khudiyev T, Bayindir M. Superenhancers: novel opportunities for nanowire optoelectronics. Sci Rep 2014;4:7505.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu M, Kang H, Li X. Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam. Sci Rep 2014;4:3627.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cohen-Armon M, Visochek L, Katzoff A, Levitan D, Susswein AJ, Klein R, et al. Long-term memory requires polyADP-ribosylation. Science 2004;304:1820–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J, Wang Q. Body Area Communications. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Safir MP, Wallach HS, Rizzo A “skip,” editors. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Tröhler D. The New Languages and Old Institutions: Problems of Implementing New School Governance. In: Smeyers P, Depaepe M, editors. Educational Research: Why ‘What Works’ Doesn’t Work, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 65–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personalized Medicine Universe.

Blog post
Andrew E. Venus And Jupiter Will Appear To Merge And Form A “Double Star” Tonight. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Starr MJ. Tests for Positive Selection on Genes Encoding Heat Shock Proteins in the Marine Slipper Snail, Crepidula fornicata. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hardy M. Texas Naturalists Also See A Border Wall as a Threat. New York Times 2017:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonalized Medicine Universe
AbbreviationPers. Med. Universe
ISSN (print)2186-4950

Other styles