How to format your references using the Personalized Medicine Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personalized Medicine Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann K. Anthropology. New Guinea: a cradle of agriculture. Science 2003;301:180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vogel EK, Machizawa MG. Neural activity predicts individual differences in visual working memory capacity. Nature 2004;428:748–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi A, Kim B, Matsuoka S. The mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCLX, regulates automaticity of HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep 2013;3:2766.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beebe K, Mock M, Merriman E, Schimmel P. Distinct domains of tRNA synthetase recognize the same base pair. Nature 2008;451:90–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson M. Everyday Moral Economies. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Villmann T, Schleif F-M, Kaden M, Lange M, editors. Advances in Self-Organizing Maps and Learning Vector Quantization: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop, WSOM 2014, Mittweida, Germany, July, 2-4, 2014. vol. 295. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Tu Z, Xu X. Requirement Pattern Elicitation Approach of Massive Customers in Domain Oriented Service Requirement Engineering. In: Mertins K, Jardim-Gonçalves R, Popplewell K, Mendonça JP, editors. Enterprise Interoperability VII: Enterprise Interoperability in the Digitized and Networked Factory of the Future, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 53–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personalized Medicine Universe.

Blog post
Fang J. Using Ultrasound to Determine the Age of Baby Stars. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Bankruptcy and Pension Problems Are Symptoms of Underlying Structural Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colchero Dorado R. Recovering memory in Jordi Soler’s “Los rojos de ultramar.” Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Left Out of a Tiebreaker Game, Mexico Protests, but to No Avail. New York Times 2017:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonalized Medicine Universe
AbbreviationPers. Med. Universe
ISSN (print)2186-4950

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