How to format your references using the Personalized Medicine Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personalized Medicine Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Where are all the students? Nature 2002;420:3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peppe DJ, Royer DL. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. Can climate feel the pressure? Science 2015;348:1210–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pullium JK, Roble GS, Raymond MA. Emergency planning: Be prepared. Nature 2014;514:430.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sakaguchi H, Matsumura H, Gong H, Abouelwafa AM. Direct visualization of the formation of single-molecule conjugated copolymers. Science 2005;310:1002–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hulin W, Jin-Ting Z. Nonparametric Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Mixed-Effects Modeling Approaches. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Corbeil D, editor. Prominin-1 (CD133): New Insights on Stem & Cancer Stem Cell Biology. vol. 777. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Mills PR. Folk Housing in the Middle of the Pacific: Architectural Lime, Creolized Ideologies, and Expressions of Power in Nineteenth-Century Hawaii. In: White C, editor. The Materiality of Individuality: Archaeological Studies of Individual Lives, New York, NY: Springer US; 2009, p. 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personalized Medicine Universe.

Blog post
Hale T. This Autonomous Robot Performed Surgery On A Live Pig. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Welfare to Work: JOBS Automated Systems Do Not Focus on Program’s Employment Objective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green DJ. Shoulder functional anatomy and development – Implications for interpreting early hominin locomotion. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanel M. The Octopus War. New York Times 2013:MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonalized Medicine Universe
AbbreviationPers. Med. Universe
ISSN (print)2186-4950

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