How to format your references using the Personality and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jensen, M. C. (2015). IMMUNOLOGY. Synthetic immunobiology boosts the IQ of T cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6260), 514–515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan, F., & Huang, L. (2014). Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass. Scientific Reports, 4, 5035.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hirjibehedin, C. F., Lutz, C. P., & Heinrich, A. J. (2006). Spin coupling in engineered atomic structures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1021–1024.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ohtsuki, H., Hauert, C., Lieberman, E., & Nowak, M. A. (2006). A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature, 441(7092), 502–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood, P. (2013). Western Art and the Wider World. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Lopes, L., Žilinskas, J., Costan, A., Cascella, R. G., Kecskemeti, G., Jeannot, E., Cannataro, M., Ricci, L., Benkner, S., Petit, S., Scarano, V., Gracia, J., Hunold, S., Scott, S. L., Lankes, S., Lengauer, C., Carretero, J., Breitbart, J., & Alexander, M. (Eds.). (2014). Euro-Par 2014: Parallel Processing Workshops: Euro-Par 2014 International Workshops, Porto, Portugal, August 25-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part I (Vol. 8805). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Di Caprio, U., & Abram, M. R. (2016). Towards the Study of New Nuclear Energies. In G. Minati, M. R. Abram, & E. Pessa (Eds.), Towards a Post-Bertalanffy Systemics (pp. 53–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, May 2). Bats Have Touch Sensors in their Wings. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Standard Budget Classifications--Proposed Functions and Subfunctions (PAD-76-49). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck, B. M. (2010). An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, October 17). A Solution to Subway Delays Caused by Crowding? More Standing Room. New York Times, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jensen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen, 2015; Yuan & Huang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan & Huang, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Hirjibehedin et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ohtsuki et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality and Individual Differences
AbbreviationPers. Individ. Dif.
ISSN (print)0191-8869
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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