How to format your references using the Personality and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Running, S. W. (2006). Climate change. Is global warming causing more, larger wildfires? Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5789), 927–928.
A journal article with 2 authors
Uchida, M., & Tonomura, A. (2010). Generation of electron beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Nature, 464(7289), 737–739.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, K. H., Penmatsa, A., & Gouaux, E. (2015). Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter. Nature, 521(7552), 322–327.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ilani, S., Martin, J., Teitelbaum, E., Smet, J. H., Mahalu, D., Umansky, V., & Yacoby, A. (2004). The microscopic nature of localization in the quantum Hall effect. Nature, 427(6972), 328–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meinert, C. L. (2012). Clinical Trials Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Seong, T.-Y., Han, J., Amano, H., & Morkoc, H. (Eds.). (2013). III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications (Vol. 126). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Šunjić, V., & Petrović Peroković, V. (2016). Illogical Disconnections with Participation of Two Groups. In V. Petrović Peroković (Ed.), Organic Chemistry from Retrosynthesis to Asymmetric Synthesis (pp. 103–141). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 16). Electromagnetism Has The Same Strength Across The Universe. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Query Regarding Department of Education Regulations (No. B-210733). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron, M. (2013). Prescripton labels: Do you know what medication you are taking? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, March 26). A Fish Shack With a Secret (It’s the Batter). New York Times, p. 14NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Running, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Running, 2006; Uchida & Tonomura, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Uchida & Tonomura, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Penmatsa, & Gouaux, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ilani et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality and Individual Differences
AbbreviationPers. Individ. Dif.
ISSN (print)0191-8869
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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