How to format your references using the Personality and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gotta, M. (2010). Journal club. A cell biologist connects her research to bacterial brain invasion. Nature, 463(7278), 139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elena, S. F., & Sanjuán, R. (2003). Evolution. Climb every mountain? Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5653), 2074–2075.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miyamoto, K., Miyake, S., & Yamamura, T. (2001). A synthetic glycolipid prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing TH2 bias of natural killer T cells. Nature, 413(6855), 531–534.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Graham, D. W., Blichert-Toft, J., Russo, C. J., Rubin, K. H., & Albarède, F. (2006). Cryptic striations in the upper mantle revealed by hafnium isotopes in southeast Indian ridge basalts. Nature, 440(7081), 199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1995). Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hemsley-Brown, J. (2016). Higher Education Consumer Choice (I. Oplatka, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, M., & Heaton, S. (2015). Ko Ahau Te Awa Ko Te Awa Ko Ahau – I Am the River, and the River is me. In M. Robertson, R. Lawrence, & G. Heath (Eds.), Experiencing the Outdoors: Enhancing Strategies for Wellbeing (pp. 49–60). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 18). The US Army Is Developing “Dragon Silk” Body Armor Using Genetically Engineered Silkworms. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Airport Finance: Past Funding Levels May Not Be Sufficient to Cover Airports’ Planned Capital Development (GAO-03-497T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeReus, D. L. (2012). The correlation between career anchors and satisfaction - a comparative analysis of multiple affiliations under a single organizational structure [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, October 6). Recalling a Bomb on the Sidewalk, a Crowded Bar Across the Street. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gotta, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Elena & Sanjuán, 2003; Gotta, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elena & Sanjuán, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Miyamoto et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Graham et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality and Individual Differences
AbbreviationPers. Individ. Dif.
ISSN (print)0191-8869
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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