How to format your references using the Personality and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laursen, L. (2015). Botany: The cultivation of weed. Nature, 525(7570), S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Itoh, S., & Yurimoto, H. (2003). Contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions in the early Solar System. Nature, 423(6941), 728–731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsu, A.-L., Murphy, C. T., & Kenyon, C. (2003). Regulation of aging and age-related disease by DAF-16 and heat-shock factor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622), 1142–1145.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Collinet, C., Stöter, M., Bradshaw, C. R., Samusik, N., Rink, J. C., Kenski, D., Habermann, B., Buchholz, F., Henschel, R., Mueller, M. S., Nagel, W. E., Fava, E., Kalaidzidis, Y., & Zerial, M. (2010). Systems survey of endocytosis by multiparametric image analysis. Nature, 464(7286), 243–249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., Chhetri, A. B., & Khan, M. M. (2010). The Greening of Petroleum Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eddahbi, M., Essaky, E. H., & Vives, J. (Eds.). (2016). Statistical Methods and Applications in Insurance and Finance: CIMPA School, Marrakech and Kelaat M’gouna, Morocco, April 2013 (Vol. 158). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Neilson, P. D., & Neilson, M. D. (2016). Adaptive Model Theory: Modelling the Modeller. In K. Al-Begain & A. Bargiela (Eds.), Seminal Contributions to Modelling and Simulation: 30 Years of the European Council of Modelling and Simulation (pp. 19–22). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 25). Asteroid 2013 TV135: It’s Not Armageddon. IFLScience; IFLScience.’s-not-armageddon/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Examination Into Certain Contract Costs for the E-2C Aircraft Program (B-163058). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salamah, H. (2012). Potential barriers to seeking medical care: Does obesity and/or self-esteem result in decreased frequency of necessary medical office visits? [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, June 9). A Perfectly Imperfect Shaggy Fish Story. New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laursen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Itoh & Yurimoto, 2003; Laursen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Itoh & Yurimoto, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hsu et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Collinet et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality and Individual Differences
AbbreviationPers. Individ. Dif.
ISSN (print)0191-8869
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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