How to format your references using the Algal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F.M. Platt, Sphingolipid lysosomal storage disorders, Nature. 510 (2014) 68–75.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Ize, T. Palmer, Microbiology. Mycobacteria’s export strategy, Science. 313 (2006) 1583–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Ando, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, Regulated fast nucleocytoplasmic shuttling observed by reversible protein highlighting, Science. 306 (2004) 1370–1373.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T.L. Jackson, M.H. Thiemens, Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO, Science. 321 (2008) 1328–1331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Kharmanda, A. El Hami, Reliability in Biomechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
R. Imai, M. Yoshida, N. Matsumoto, eds., Plant and Microbe Adaptations to Cold in a Changing World: Proceedings from Plant and Microbe Adaptations to Cold 2012, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
W.W. Bolten, NSAIDs, in: W.U. Kampen, M. Fischer (Eds.), Local Treatment of Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Benefits and Risks, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 63–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algal Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Did Life On Earth Start?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Safety: Interim Report on Safety Belt and Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.S. Taylor, Too Close to the Knives: Children’s Rights, Parental Authority, and Best Interests in the Context of Elective Pediatric Surgeries, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, A Different Battleground, A Lobby’s Bulletin Board, New York Times. (2002) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgal Research
AbbreviationAlgal Res.
ISSN (print)2211-9264
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

Other styles