How to format your references using the Algal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.R. Gibson, Nuclear deterrence: decisions at the brink, Nature. 487 (2012) 27–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.J. Martin, G.R. Mundy, Bone metastasis: can osteoclasts be excluded?, Nature. 445 (2007) E19; discussion E19-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Mora, R. Danovaro, M. Loreau, Alternative hypotheses to explain why biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are concave-up in some natural ecosystems but concave-down in manipulative experiments, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.L. Ng, M.A. Lourenço, R.M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, K.P. Homewood, An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode, Nature. 410 (2001) 192–194.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Greenspan, Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 2008.
An edited book
C. Alippi, M. Polycarpou, C. Panayiotou, G. Ellinas, eds., Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2009: 19th International Conference, Limassol, Cyprus, September 14-17, 2009, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Pufahl, N. Herzberg, A. Meyer, M. Weske, Flexible Batch Configuration in Business Processes Based on Events, in: X. Franch, A.K. Ghose, G.A. Lewis, S. Bhiri (Eds.), Service-Oriented Computing: 12th International Conference, ICSOC 2014, Paris, France, November 3-6, 2014. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algal Research.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Plants Can Learn By Association, Just Like Pavlov’s Dogs, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should be Better Planned, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.E. Schlumbrecht, Do Negative Experiences Influence Substance Use in Adolescent Males and Females?, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, Political Journalist Halperin Posts Apology to Women He ‘Mistreated,’ New York Times. (2017) B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgal Research
AbbreviationAlgal Res.
ISSN (print)2211-9264
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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