How to format your references using the Journal of Nanoparticle Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanoparticle Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spinrad N (2000) New ice age, or just cold feet? Nature 405:623
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias SM, Cattaneo F (2013) Shear-driven dynamo waves at high magnetic Reynolds number. Nature 497:463–465
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohman DJ, Bickford D, Sodhi NS (2007) Environment. The burning issue. Science 316:376
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gurwitz D, Fortier I, Lunshof JE, Knoppers BM (2009) Research ethics. Children and population biobanks. Science 325:818–819

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin P (2010) OSx86. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Stubblefield P, Bhattacharya N (eds) (2009) Frontiers of Cord Blood Science. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Lake P, Crowther P (2013) NoSQL Databases. In: Crowther P (ed) Concise Guide to Databases: A Practical Introduction. Springer, London, pp 97–134

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanoparticle Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Millions of Gallons of “Missing” BP Oil are Sitting at the Bottom of the Gulf. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Establishing a Proper Fee Schedule Under the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casco D (2014) Consonance: An inter play of music and design to evoke curiosity and awareness of our musical identity. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Use Any Color Shopping Bag, So Long as It’s Red. New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spinrad 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Spinrad 2000; Tobias and Cattaneo 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias and Cattaneo 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gurwitz et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanoparticle Research
AbbreviationJ. Nanopart. Res.
ISSN (print)1388-0764
ISSN (online)1572-896X
General Chemistry
General Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles