How to format your references using the Perioperative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perioperative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCook A. Education: Rethinking PhDs. Nature. 2011 Apr 21;472(7343):280–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kennel C, Dressler A. Space science. Coping with uncertainty in space science planning. Science. 2014 Jan 10;343(6167):140–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Markos C, Kubat I, Bang O. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms. Sci. Rep. 2014 Aug 14;4:6057.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pawin G, Wong KL, Kwon K-Y, Bartels L. A homomolecular porous network at a Cu(111) surface. Science. 2006 Aug 18;313(5789):961–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paladino B. Corporate Performance Management Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Bestak R, Simak B, Kozlowska E, editors. Personal Wireless Communications: The 12th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2007), Prague, Czech Republic, September 2007. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Scalabrino S, Grano G, Di Nucci D, Oliveto R, De Lucia A. Search-Based Testing of Procedural Programs: Iterative Single-Target or Multi-target Approach? In: Sarro F, Deb K, editors. Search Based Software Engineering: 8th International Symposium, SSBSE 2016, Raleigh, NC, USA, October 8-10, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 64–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perioperative Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. How Many Arms Does Our Galaxy Have? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Needed Improvements in FAA’s Airline Inspection Program Are Underway. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 May. Report No.: RCED-87-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume DA. An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Patterson MJO. A Quiet Outpost Beyond the Tunnel. New York Times. 2015 Aug 2;RE11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCook 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kennel and Dressler 2014; McCook 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kennel and Dressler 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pawin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerioperative Medicine
AbbreviationPerioper. Med. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)2047-0525

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