How to format your references using the Perioperative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perioperative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waldrop MM. Physics meets cancer: The disruptor. Nature. 2011 Jun 2;474(7349):20–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medford JI, Prasad A. Plant Science. Plant synthetic biology takes root. Science. 2014 Oct 10;346(6206):162–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin G, Xu N, Xi R. Paracrine Wingless signalling controls self-renewal of Drosophila intestinal stem cells. Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1119–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wright SI, Bi IV, Schroeder SG, Yamasaki M, Doebley JF, McMullen MD, et al. The effects of artificial selection on the maize genome. Science. 2005 May 27;308(5726):1310–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coulson J. Sustainable Use of Wood in Construction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Ulusay R, editor. The ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: 2007-2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Faden LY. Globalization and History Education: The United States and Canada. In: Zajda J, editor. Nation-Building and History Education in a Global Culture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perioperative Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. How Extreme Birds Stay Aloft For Months At A Time. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Statistics on International Technology Transfer: Need for Additional Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Mar. Report No.: ID-78-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry GC. Students’ experiences with simulation education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Syndergaard Brings the Heat, and the Mets’ Bats End Their Chilly Start. New York Times. 2017 Apr 10;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Waldrop 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Medford and Prasad 2014; Waldrop 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medford and Prasad 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wright et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerioperative Medicine
AbbreviationPerioper. Med. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)2047-0525
Scope

Other styles