How to format your references using the Perioperative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perioperative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain E. Science careers. Playing well with industry. Science. 2008 Mar 14;319(5869):1548–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng Z, Menees TM. RNA branching and debranching in the yeast retrovirus-like element Ty1. Science. 2004 Jan 9;303(5655):240–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen R-P, Chew K-H, He S. Dynamic control of collapse in a vortex Airy beam. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1406.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nürnberg DJ, Morton J, Santabarbara S, Telfer A, Joliot P, Antonaru LA, et al. Photochemistry beyond the red limit in chlorophyll f-containing photosystems. Science. 2018 Jun 15;360(6394):1210–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rim CT, Mi C. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Torzilli G, editor. Ultrasound-Guided Liver Surgery: An Atlas. Milano: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kikuchi M, Azumi M. Low Frequency Collective Motions in Tokamak. In: Azumi M, editor. Frontiers in Fusion Research II: Introduction to Modern Tokamak Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 115–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perioperative Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Discovered In Rio de Janeiro Waterways Ahead Of Olymics [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Radio Marti. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Feb. Report No.: NSIAD-93-126R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hintz L. Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2 Russian Churches, Split by War, Reuniting. New York Times. 2007 May 17;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng and Menees 2004; Pain 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Menees 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nürnberg et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerioperative Medicine
AbbreviationPerioper. Med. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)2047-0525

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