How to format your references using the Perioperative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perioperative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andreae MO. Atmosphere. Aerosols before pollution. Science. 2007 Jan 5;315(5808):50–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buluta I, Nori F. Quantum simulators. Science. 2009 Oct 2;326(5949):108–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Furuya T, Kamlet AS, Ritter T. Catalysis for fluorination and trifluoromethylation. Nature. 2011 May 26;473(7348):470–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu H-D, Chen Y-H, Lin H-F, Tao H-S, Liu W-M. Antiferromagnetic metal and Mott transition on Shastry-Sutherland lattice. Sci. Rep. 2014 Apr 29;4:4829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle M. Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Hart WE. Pyomo – Optimization Modeling in Python. Laird C, Watson J-P, Woodruff DL, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrario D. Il cinema secondo Fibonacci. In: Emmer M, editor. Matematica e Cultura 2006. Milano: Springer; 2006. p. 15–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perioperative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Are Doctors Following Best Practice When Prescribing Antipsychotic Meds To Kids? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Strategies Are Available for Making Existing Road Infrastructure Perform Better. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jul. Report No.: GAO-07-920.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger MC. Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Cooper M. Blasts at Boston Marathon Kill 3 and Injure 100. New York Times. 2013 Apr 15;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Andreae 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Andreae 2007; Buluta and Nori 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buluta and Nori 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerioperative Medicine
AbbreviationPerioper. Med. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)2047-0525

Other styles