How to format your references using the Perioperative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perioperative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hendler J. Communication. Science and the semantic web. Science. 2003 Jan 24;299(5606):520–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lease RO, Ehlers TA. Incision into the eastern Andean Plateau during Pliocene cooling. Science. 2013 Aug 16;341(6147):774–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koschowitz M-C, Fischer C, Sander M. Evolution. Beyond the rainbow. Science. 2014 Oct 24;346(6208):416–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schmidt-Kaler F, Häffner H, Riebe M, Gulde S, Lancaster GPT, Deuschle T, et al. Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate. Nature. 2003 Mar 27;422(6930):408–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nordenström J. The Hunt for the Parathyroids. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.
An edited book
Lasjaunias P. Surgical Neuroangiography: Clinical and Interventional Aspects in Children. 2nd ed. Brugge KGT, Berenstein A, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Stevens G, Pipek V, Wulf V. Appropriation Infrastructure: Supporting the Design of Usages. In: Pipek V, Rosson MB, Ruyter B de, Wulf V, editors. End-User Development: 2nd International Symposium, IS-EUD 2009, Siegen, Germany, March 2-4, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 50–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perioperative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Time Travel: A Conversation Between A Scientist And A Literature Professor [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Geostationary Weather Satellites: Launch Date Nears, but Remaining Schedule Risks Need to be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Dec. Report No.: GAO-15-60.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchings JD. Teachers’ perceptions of evidence-based decision making: A case study of three schools in British Columbia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Artists in Residence. New York Times. 2010 Sep 22;M224.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hendler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hendler 2003; Lease and Ehlers 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lease and Ehlers 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerioperative Medicine
AbbreviationPerioper. Med. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)2047-0525

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