How to format your references using the Perioperative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perioperative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucas R. Journal club. A neuroscientist explores the network of cells in the retina. Nature. 2010 Mar 4;464(7285):11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voit GM, Bryan GL. Regulation of the X-ray luminosity of clusters of galaxies by cooling and supernova feedback. Nature. 2001 Nov 22;414(6862):425–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bockrath C, Ballhaus C, Holzheid A. Fractionation of the platinum-group elements during mantle melting. Science. 2004 Sep 24;305(5692):1951–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boehmerle W, Huehnchen P, Peruzzaro S, Balkaya M, Endres M. Electrophysiological, behavioral and histological characterization of paclitaxel, cisplatin, vincristine and bortezomib-induced neuropathy in C57Bl/6 mice. Sci. Rep. 2014 Sep 18;4:6370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM. Accounting Best Practices. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Blaschke C, Shatkay H, editors. Linking Literature, Information, and Knowledge for Biology: Workshop of the BioLink Special Interest Group, ISMB/ECCB 2009, Stockholm, June 28-29, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Parui U, Sanil V. Data Synchronization Internals. In: Sanil V, editor. Pro SQL Server Always On Availability Groups. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2016. p. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perioperative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Are Creative People More Prone To Psychological Distress Or Is The ‘Mad Genius’ A Myth? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The National Aero-Space Plane. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jan. Report No.: 137896.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Masumdar S. Vibration-based electromagnetic energy harvester for low-frequency road traffic [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Amid Defensive Woes, Mets Try to Avoid Fumbling an Anticipated Call-Up. New York Times. 2017 Jun 10;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucas 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lucas 2010; Voit and Bryan 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voit and Bryan 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Boehmerle et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerioperative Medicine
AbbreviationPerioper. Med. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)2047-0525

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