How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Bricks and mortar. Scandinavia’s material gains. Nature. 2004;429:906.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brosi BJ, Biber EGN. Conservation. Citizen involvement in the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Science. 2012;337:802–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lebrun EG, Jones NT, Gilbert LE. Chemical warfare among invaders: a detoxification interaction facilitates an ant invasion. Science. 2014;343:1014–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Daw ND, O’Doherty JP, Dayan P, Seymour B, Dolan RJ. Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans. Nature. 2006;441:876–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Goudon T. Mathematics for Modeling and Scientific Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Bouguettaya A, Sheng QZ, Daniel F, editors. Web Services Foundations. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Grivas K, Zerefos S. The Map as a Tool for Identifying Pervasive Interactions in Today’s Home. In: Streitz N, Markopoulos P, editors. Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions: Third International Conference, DAPI 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 36–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. What Should We Do About The 15,000 Asian Elephants Still In Captivity? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Reserve Has Established Effective Year 2000 Management Controls for Internal Systems Conversion. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Apr. Report No.: AIMD-99-78.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Goodwin RH. Case study of the voluntary student transfer program: The perspectives of African American students and parent participants in one midwestern school district [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly DA. Calling From Abroad at Reasonable Rates. New York Times. 2006 Jan 1;56.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Interv. Ther.
ISSN (print)1868-4300
ISSN (online)1868-4297
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles