How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chong Y. Optical devices: photonic insulators with a twist. Nature. 2013;496:173–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Beghein C, Trampert J. Robust normal mode constraints on inner-core anisotropy from model space search. Science. 2003;299:552–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xu K, Zhong G, Zhuang X. Actin, spectrin, and associated proteins form a periodic cytoskeletal structure in axons. Science. 2013;339:452–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mandel Y, Manivanh R, Dalal R, Huie P, Wang J, Brinton M, et al. Vasoconstriction by electrical stimulation: new approach to control of non-compressible hemorrhage. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hamdan M, Righetti PG. Proteomics Today. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Abergel F, Aoyama H, Chakrabarti BK, Chakraborti A, Ghosh A, editors. Econophysics and Data Driven Modelling of Market Dynamics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Procopiou M, Meier CA. Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules. In: Oertli D, Udelsman R, editors. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 45–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. A ‘Bionic Leaf’ Turns Solar Energy Into Chemicals And Fuels [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Restructuring Student Aid Could Reduce Low-Income Student Dropout Rate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-95-48.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Aguirre BL. The rise in pharmaceutical drug abuse among American adolescents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dominus S. A Dramatist as Dungeon Master. New York Times. 2017 Jun 9;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Surg. Res.
ISSN (online)1749-799X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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