How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Evans RL. Geophysics: Making the Earth move. Nature. 2014;509:40–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Si Q, Steglich F. Heavy fermions and quantum phase transitions. Science. 2010;329:1161–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McLeod P, Reed N, Dienes Z. Psychophysics: how fielders arrive in time to catch the ball. Nature. 2003;426:244–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shi Z, Zhang Y, Cui X, Zhuang S, Wu B, Dong X, et al. High-temperature continuous-wave laser realized in hollow microcavities. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Phelan J. Reading the American Novel 1920-2010. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Kowalewski MM, Garber PA, Cortés-Ortiz L, Urbani B, Youlatos D, editors. Howler Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gonek P, Lisowski M, Uhl T. Development of Wireless Passive Sensing Platform – Communication Issues. In: Awrejcewicz J, Szewczyk R, Trojnacki M, Kaliczyńska M, editors. Mechatronics - Ideas for Industrial Application. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 41–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Most, If Not All, Red Dwarf Stars Harbour At Least One Planet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Department of Energy Does Not Effectively Manage Its Supercomputers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jul. Report No.: RCED-98-208.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Monforton C. Evaluation of the impact of a mandatory safety training regulation on occupational injury and fatality rates among U.S. stone, sand and gravel miners [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. A Tortured Voice of a Lost Russian Generation. New York Times. 2007 Dec 22;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Surg. Res.
ISSN (online)1749-799X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles