How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shelly DR. Periodic, chaotic, and doubled earthquake recurrence intervals on the deep San Andreas fault. Science. 2010;328:1385–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Vinson V, Pennisi E. Synthetic biology. The allure of synthetic biology. Introduction. Science. 2011;333:1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wilson HR, Blake R, Lee SH. Dynamics of travelling waves in visual perception. Nature. 2001;412:907–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kufer SK, Puchner EM, Gumpp H, Liedl T, Gaub HE. Single-molecule cut-and-paste surface assembly. Science. 2008;319:594–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tikhomirov VV. Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Holodynski M. Development of Emotions and Their Regulation: An Internalization Model. Friedlmeier W, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Grishchuk S, Schledjewski R. Mechanical Dispersion Methods for Carbon Nanotubes in Aerospace Composite Matrix Systems. In: Paipetis A, Kostopoulos V, editors. Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials: A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 99–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Jellyfish Sting Under The Microscope In Slow Motion [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/jellyfish-sting-under-microscope-slow-motion/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Program Status: Naval Surface Fire Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-97-179R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garraway OL. A study of the relationship between corporate leaders’ beliefs and the firm’s strategic decisions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. False Rumors Are Flying About Insurance Claims. New York Times. 2017 Aug 29;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Surg. Res.
ISSN (online)1749-799X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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