How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baker TA. Obituary: Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007). Nature. 2007;450:809.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gargiulo F, Carletti T. Driving forces of researchers mobility. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4860.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ginsburg GS, Angrist M, Cook-Deegan R. Public health. Genomics and medicine at a crossroads in Chernobyl. Science. 2006;314:62–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gu C, Zhang X, Jiang J, Guan Z, Zhao S, Fang W, et al. Chrysanthemum CmNAR2 interacts with CmNRT2 in the control of nitrate uptake. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Li W. Risk Assessment of Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Ackers P, Reid AJ, editors. Alternatives to State-Socialism in Britain: Other Worlds of Labour in the Twentieth Century. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Austin J, Bentkover J, Chait L. Driving Successful Implementation. In: Austin J, Bentkover J, Chait L, editors. Leading Strategic Change in an Era of Healthcare Transformation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Hunting Could Cause Birds To Develop Bigger Brains [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/hunting-could-cause-birds-to-develop-bigger-brains/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Active Commuter Rail Agency Service Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Jul. Report No.: GAO-06-820R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Adams AW. Shepherd leadership of Church of God pastors and how this relates to ministerial effectiveness [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B, Schmitt E, Mazzetti M. Ousted Saudi Prince Said To Be Confined to Palace. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Surg. Res.
ISSN (online)1749-799X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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