How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Simons BD. Development. Getting your gut into shape. Science. 2013;342:203–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mechoulam R, Lichtman AH. Neuroscience. Stout guards of the central nervous system. Science. 2003;302:65–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li Y-L, Kinloch IA, Windle AH. Direct spinning of carbon nanotube fibers from chemical vapor deposition synthesis. Science. 2004;304:276–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chwalek K, Tsurkan MV, Freudenberg U, Werner C. Glycosaminoglycan-based hydrogels to modulate heterocellular communication in in vitro angiogenesis models. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bell S. Lean Enterprise Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Aroyo L, Welty C, Alani H, Taylor J, Bernstein A, Kagal L, et al., editors. The Semantic Web – ISWC 2011: 10th International Semantic Web Conference, Bonn, Germany, October 23-27, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stojadinović S, Vasilić R, Kasalica B, Belča I, Zeković L. Luminescence During the Electrochemical Oxidation of Aluminum. In: Djokić SS, editor. Electrodeposition and Surface Finishing: Fundamentals and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 241–302.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Charge Gadgets Just By Walking. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Disbursing Transactions, Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Aug. Report No.: 092587.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Miramontes AJ. Examining eye fixation patterns during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) under varying levels of workload [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Alvarez L. Pandemonium Followed Rumor of Second Airport Attacker. New York Times. 2017 Jan 9;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Surg. Res.
ISSN (online)1749-799X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles