How to format your references using the Pediatric Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis J. There’s a place for the theory of everything. Nature. 2000 Jan 20;403(6767):241–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaplinsky NJ, Barton MK. Plant biology. Plant acupuncture: sticking PINs in the right places. Science. 2004 Oct 29;306(5697):822–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cabanes C, Cazenave A, Le Provost C. Sea level rise during past 40 years determined from satellite and in situ observations. Science. 2001 Oct 26;294(5543):840–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Couder Y, Protière S, Fort E, Boudaoud A. Dynamical phenomena: walking and orbiting droplets. Nature. 2005 Sep 8;437(7056):208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vagelli AA. The Banggai Cardinalfish. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Becker M, Davis J, editors. Surgical Management of Inflammatory Eye Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Dvoyris V, Kreiss Y, Bader T. Treatment Capabilities of Field Hospitals at War and Mass-Casualty Disasters. In: Wolfson N, Lerner A, Roshal L, editors. Orthopedics in Disasters: Orthopedic Injuries in Natural Disasters and Mass Casualty Events. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Anesthesia.

Blog post
Taub B. Fish Can Tell People Apart By Their Faces [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Medium Trucks: Information on Delivery Delays and Corrosion Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-99-26.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morr R. Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman PS. As U.S. Raises Walls on Trade, Allies Move On. New York Times. 2017 Jul 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Anesthesia
AbbreviationPaediatr. Anaesth.
ISSN (print)1155-5645
ISSN (online)1460-9592
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles