How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Alternative approaches, Nature. 421 (2003) 455.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.F. Chyba, K.P. Hand, Planetary science. Life without photosynthesis, Science. 292 (2001) 2026–2027.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.I. Fried, T.A. Münch, F.S. Werblin, Mechanisms and circuitry underlying directional selectivity in the retina, Nature. 420 (2002) 411–414.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.M. Dambacher, P.A. Rossignol, H.W. Li, J.M. Emlen, Dam breaching and chinook salmon recovery, Science. 291 (2001) 939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.G. Thomas, Greece, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, 2014.
An edited book
S.R. Eachempati, R.L. Reed II, eds., Acute Cholecystitis, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G.R. Law, P.D. Baxter, M.S. Gilthorpe, Selection Bias in Epidemiologic Studies, in: Y.-K. Tu, D.C. Greenwood (Eds.), Modern Methods for Epidemiology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition Letters.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Are Your Bacteria Making You Fat?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Environmental Satellites: Launch Delayed; NOAA Faces Key Decisions on Timing of Future Satellites, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Cagle West, Effective software engineering leadership for development programs, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. McKINLEY, V. Yee, Questioning Cuomo’s Order on Homelessness, New York Times. (2016) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition Letters
AbbreviationPattern Recognit. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-8655
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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