How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Rabitz, Chemistry. Strong-arming molecular dynamics, Science. 314 (2006) 264–265.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Ichinose, H. Sayama, Evolution of fairness in the not quite ultimatum game, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5104.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q. Sun, K.F. Haynes, X. Zhou, Differential undertaking response of a lower termite to congeneric and conspecific corpses, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1650.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Ogura, M.-A. Yoshida, T. Moritaki, Y. Okuda, J. Sese, K.K. Shimizu, K. Sousounis, P.A. Tsonis, Loss of the six3/6 controlling pathways might have resulted in pinhole-eye evolution in Nautilus, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1432.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Sobel, All for One, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
S.B. Navathe, W. Wu, S. Shekhar, X. Du, S.X. Wang, H. Xiong, eds., Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 21st International Conference, DASFAA 2016, Dallas, TX, USA, April 16-19, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
I.F. Gablina, I.G. Dobretsova, E.A. Popova, Biomineralization Processes During the Formation of Modern Oceanic Sulfide Ore and Ore-bearing Sediments, in: O.V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, E.G. Panova, D.Y. Vlasov (Eds.), Biogenic—Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Switzerland Could be Receiving Post by Drone, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working?, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.C. Williams, Smart Packaging: A Novel Technique For Localized Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, New Life Emerges From the ‘Big Bang,’ New York Times. (2017) AR114.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition Letters
AbbreviationPattern Recognit. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-8655
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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