How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Overbaugh, 24/7 isn’t the only way: A healthy work-life balance can enhance research, Nature. 477 (2011) 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Guzman, S. Stern, Innovation economics. Where is Silicon Valley?, Science. 347 (2015) 606–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.A. Alford, P.M. Dixon, J.H. Pechmann, Ecology. Global amphibian population declines, Nature. 412 (2001) 499–500.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Turner, J. Beales, S. Faure, R.P. Dunford, D.A. Laurie, The pseudo-response regulator Ppd-H1 provides adaptation to photoperiod in barley, Science. 310 (2005) 1031–1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.A. Rosier, M.A. Martens, J.R. Thomas, Global New Drug Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M.A. Salam, Power Systems Grounding, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Flynn, J. McCarthy, Exploring the Student Learning Experience in a ‘Live’ International Corporate Finance Course Project, in: P. Daly, K. Reid, P. Buckley, E. Doyle (Eds.), Innovative Business Education Design for 21st Century Learning, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition Letters.

Blog post
J. Davis, Wild Pigs Forage – And Sleep – Along Magnetic Lines, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Enhancements Made in Passenger and Checked Baggage Screening, but Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. De Felice, A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Isherwood, A Milkman Returns, Emotional as Ever, New York Times. (2015) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition Letters
AbbreviationPattern Recognit. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-8655
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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