How to format your references using the Journal of Productivity Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Productivity Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch X (2000) Spain in quandary over French synchrotron. Nature 405:604
A journal article with 2 authors
Nilsen TW, Graveley BR (2010) Expansion of the eukaryotic proteome by alternative splicing. Nature 463:457–463
A journal article with 3 authors
Averill C, Turner BL, Finzi AC (2014) Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage. Nature 505:543–545
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Papadakis G, Tsortos A, Kordas A, et al (2013) Acoustic detection of DNA conformation in genetic assays combined with PCR. Sci Rep 3:2033

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Braudeau E, Assi AT, Mohtar RH (2016) Hydrostructural Pedology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Xin YP (ed) (2012) Conceptual Model-Based Problem Solving: Teach Students with Learning Difficulties to Solve Math Problems. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández-Jalvo Y, Andrews P (2016) Discoloration and Staining. In: Andrews P (ed) Atlas of Taphonomic Identifications: 1001+ Images of Fossil and Recent Mammal Bone Modification. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 155–166

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Productivity Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) No, Sunscreen Will Not Give You Cancer. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/no-sunscreen-will-not-give-you-cancer/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Economies Obtainable by Increasing Days at Sea of Oceanographic Research and Survey Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heffner MD (2017) Informing Decision-Making for Derailments Involving Hazmat: An Analysis of Phmsa Train Accident Data. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hill J, Kramer AE (2017) No Love for Valentine’s: In Russia, Florists Bank on a Day for Women. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bosch 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bosch 2000; Nilsen and Graveley 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nilsen and Graveley 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Papadakis et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Productivity Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Prod. Anal.
ISSN (print)0895-562X
ISSN (online)1573-0441
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles