How to format your references using the Journal of Productivity Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Productivity Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scanlan D (2014) Ecology. Bacterial vesicles in the ocean. Science 343:143–144
A journal article with 2 authors
Eddy CR Jr, Gaskill DK (2009) Materials science. Silicon carbide as a platform for power electronics. Science 324:1398–1400
A journal article with 3 authors
Grevemeyer I, Herber R, Essen HH (2000) Microseismological evidence for a changing wave climate in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Nature 408:349–352
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rewitz KF, Yamanaka N, Gilbert LI, O’Connor MB (2009) The insect neuropeptide PTTH activates receptor tyrosine kinase torso to initiate metamorphosis. Science 326:1403–1405

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moore RG, Garland A (2008) Cognitive Therapy for Chronic and Persistent Depression. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, England
An edited book
Ravindranath NH (2008) Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Medellin-Gasque R, Atkinson K, McBurney P, Bench-Capon T (2012) Arguments over Co-operative Plans. In: Modgil S, Oren N, Toni F (eds) Theorie and Applications of Formal Argumentation: First International Workshop, TAFA 2011. Barcelona, Spain, July 16-17, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 50–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Productivity Analysis.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) This Single Drug Will Extend The Lives Of Millions Of Pet Dogs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christian TM (2012) Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2016) A Family Revolving Around a Disability. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scanlan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Eddy and Gaskill 2009; Scanlan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eddy and Gaskill 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Rewitz et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Productivity Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Prod. Anal.
ISSN (print)0895-562X
ISSN (online)1573-0441
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles