How to format your references using the Journal of Productivity Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Productivity Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shea K (2007) Ecology. How the wood moves. Science 315:1231–1232
A journal article with 2 authors
Blau WJ, Fleming AJ (2004) Materials science. Designer nanotubes by molecular self-assembly. Science 304:1457–1458
A journal article with 3 authors
Catling DC, Zahnle KJ, McKay C (2001) Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth. Science 293:839–843
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wachowiak A, Yamachika R, Khoo KH, et al (2005) Visualization of the molecular Jahn-Teller effect in an insulating K4C60 monolayer. Science 310:468–470

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben-Daya M, Kumar U, Murthy DNP (2016) Introduction to Maintenance Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sumathi S (2006) Introduction to Data Mining and its Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Tabe S (2014) Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes and Their Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment. In: Hu A, Apblett A (eds) Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 111–143

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Productivity Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) Should Florida ‘Frack’ Its Limestone For Oil And Gas? Two Geophysicists Weigh In. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hasbini MA (2017) The Great Recession of 2007 and the Housing Market Crash: Why Did So Many Builders Fail? Lessons for the Local Homebuilding Industry. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) With a Final Shot, the Mets Are Denied as the Braves Snatch a Sweep. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shea 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Blau and Fleming 2004; Shea 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blau and Fleming 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wachowiak et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Productivity Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Prod. Anal.
ISSN (print)0895-562X
ISSN (online)1573-0441
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles