How to format your references using the Journal of Productivity Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Productivity Analysis (J Prod Anal). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi E (2013) Geography. Advancing seasons in China. Science 341:482–483
A journal article with 2 authors
Peña JL, Konishi M (2001) Auditory spatial receptive fields created by multiplication. Science 292:249–252
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander DTL, Crozier PA, Anderson JR (2008) Brown carbon spheres in East Asian outflow and their optical properties. Science 321:833–836
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bernstein MP, Dworkin JP, Sandford SA, et al (2002) Racemic amino acids from the ultraviolet photolysis of interstellar ice analogues. Nature 416:401–403

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barron EN (2013) Game Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Juhász Z, Kacsuk P, Kranzlmüller D (eds) (2005) Distributed and Parallel Systems: Cluster and Grid Computing. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Lindop J, Treece G, Gee A, Prager R (2009) Dynamic Resolution Selection in Strain Imaging. In: Akiyama I (ed) Acoustical Imaging. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 33–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Productivity Analysis.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Smallest Supermassive Black Hole Ever Found Could Reveal How Galaxies Grow. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox TM (2010) Is the Procurement Integrity Act “Important” Enough for the Mandatory Disclosure Rule?: A Look at the Procurement Integrity Act and the Case for its Inclusion in the Mandatory Disclosure Rule. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Supreme Court Weighs Maine’s Tobacco Law. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zastrow 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bürger 2007; Schloss 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peña and Konishi 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Rajakulendran et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Productivity Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Prod. Anal.
ISSN (print)0895-562X
ISSN (online)1573-0441
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles