How to format your references using the Journal of Productivity Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Productivity Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bates M (2010) GE Prize-winning essay. A new approach to fluorescence microscopy. Science 330:1334–1335
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakatani H, Yamaguchi Y (2014) Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts. Sci Rep 4:5894
A journal article with 3 authors
Lunshof JE, Church GM, Prainsack B (2014) Information access. Raw personal data: providing access. Science 343:373–374
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bidartondo MI, Redecker D, Hijri I, et al (2002) Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 419:389–392

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson MD (2016) Great Myths of Intimate Relationships. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Menezes A (ed) (2005) Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2005: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2005, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 14-18, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Saeki T, Kawano M (2016) Does IgG4-Related Disease Have an Autoimmune Basis? In: Saito T, Stone JH, Nakashima H, et al. (eds) IgG4-Related Kidney Disease. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 55–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Productivity Analysis.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Greek City Trials Eco-Friendly Driverless Buses. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1969) Federal Support for Research and Education: Costs and Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller MW (2010) The Mediterranean Ethiopian: Intellectual discourse and the fixity of myth in classical antiquity. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) With Team Skating, it’s Now Kiss, Cry, Squeeze in. New York Times SP1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bates 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bates 2010; Nakatani and Yamaguchi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nakatani and Yamaguchi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bidartondo et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Productivity Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Prod. Anal.
ISSN (print)0895-562X
ISSN (online)1573-0441
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles