How to format your references using the Journal of Productivity Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Productivity Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark J (2009) Paleontology. Becoming T. rex. Science 326:373–374
A journal article with 2 authors
Junge W, Nelson N (2005) Structural biology. Nature’s rotary electromotors. Science 308:642–644
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovalenko MV, Scheele M, Talapin DV (2009) Colloidal nanocrystals with molecular metal chalcogenide surface ligands. Science 324:1417–1420
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nackley AG, Shabalina SA, Tchivileva IE, et al (2006) Human catechol-O-methyltransferase haplotypes modulate protein expression by altering mRNA secondary structure. Science 314:1930–1933

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega P (2010) Geographical Information and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pal SP, Sadakane K (eds) (2014) Algorithms and Computation: 8th International Workshop, WALCOM 2014, Chennai, India, February 13-15, 2014, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Micu DM, Dumitrescu A, Cheval S, Birsan M-V (2015) Data. In: Dumitrescu A, Cheval S, Birsan M-V (eds) Climate of the Romanian Carpathians: Variability and Trends. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 33–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Productivity Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) How Smartphone Light Affects Your Brain And Body. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) DOD Business Systems Modernization: Billions Being Invested without Adequate Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
An D (2017) Improved Flotation of Bastnaesite and Chalcopyrite. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) Militants and Refugees Are Bused Back to Syria. New York Times A5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clark 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Junge and Nelson 2005; Clark 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Junge and Nelson 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nackley et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Productivity Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Prod. Anal.
ISSN (print)0895-562X
ISSN (online)1573-0441
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles