How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Smith, A question of form, Nature. 422 (2003) 341.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Lucas, P.S. Frenette, Stem cells: Reprogramming finds its niche, Nature. 511 (2014) 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.P. Yanoviak, R. Dudley, M. Kaspari, Directed aerial descent in canopy ants, Nature. 433 (2005) 624–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.B. Fixler, G.T. Foster, J.M. McGuirk, M.A. Kasevich, Atom interferometer measurement of the newtonian constant of gravity, Science. 315 (2007) 74–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.E. McGrath, Luther’s Theology of the Cross, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A.-C. Albertsson, M. Hakkarainen, eds., Chromatography for Sustainable Polymeric Materials: Renewable, Degradable and Recyclable, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
B.M. ter Haar Romeny, A Geometric Model for the Functional Circuits of the Visual Front-End, in: L. Grandinetti, T. Lippert, N. Petkov (Eds.), Brain-Inspired Computing: International Workshop, BrainComp 2013, Cetraro, Italy, July 8-11, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 35–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Disturbingly High Concentrations of Ozone Depleting Molecule, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Options to Enhance the Long-term Viability of the Essential Air Service Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Takele, Confinement Mechanisms in Quantum Chromodynamics, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, As Calculated As Tie-Dye Can Get, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition
AbbreviationPattern Recognit.
ISSN (print)0031-3203
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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