How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Donald, Throw off the cloak of invisibility, Nature. 490 (2012) 447.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Coombs, L. Georghiou, Research and development. A new “industrial ecology,” Science. 296 (2002) 471.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.B. Elsner, J.P. Kossin, T.H. Jagger, The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones, Nature. 455 (2008) 92–95.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Vandersypen, M. Steffen, G. Breyta, C.S. Yannoni, M.H. Sherwood, I.L. Chuang, Experimental realization of Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance, Nature. 414 (2001) 883–887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Khatib, W. Elmenreich, Modeling of Photovoltaic Systems Using MATLAB ®, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
D.W. Ussery, T.M. Wassenaar, S. Borini, eds., Computing for Comparative Microbial Genomics: Bioinformatics for Microbiologists, Springer, London, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
N.R. Miller, Election Inversions by the U.S. Electoral College, in: D.S. Felsenthal, M. Machover (Eds.), Electoral Systems: Paradoxes, Assumptions, and Procedures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 93–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition.

Blog post
J. Davis, Adorable Slow Lorises Will Go For The Most Potent Of Drinks, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Railroad Safety: Reporting Time Frames and Results of Post-Accident Drug Tests, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.B. Panteleyeva, Statistical methods of latent structure discovery in child-directed speech, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Healy, R. Pérez-Peña, A. Blinder, Stalled Over Gulf, Storm Deepens Texans’ Soggy Misery, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition
AbbreviationPattern Recognit.
ISSN (print)0031-3203
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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