How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.D. Maynard, Don’t define nanomaterials, Nature. 475 (2011) 31.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Soubeyrand, S.A. Plotkin, Microbial evolution: antitoxin vaccines and pathogen virulence, Nature. 417 (2002) 609–10; discussion 610.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.D. Putnam, T.K. Hayes, R.D. Kolodner, Specific pathways prevent duplication-mediated genome rearrangements, Nature. 460 (2009) 984–989.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Luo, X. Tang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Sun, F. Qi, W. Huang, Methyl radicals in oxidative coupling of methane directly confirmed by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.D. Lewin, Better Software Project Management: A Primer for Success, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
B. Jha, Fly Ash Zeolites: Innovations, Applications, and Directions, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Mandl, M. Hauser, H. Mandl, Maxims of the Co-creative Meeting, in: M. Hauser, H. Mandl (Eds.), The Co-Creative Meeting: Practicing Consensual Effectivity in Organizations, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 29–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition.

Blog post
T. Hale, Dr Henry Heimlich Uses His Heimlich Maneuver For First Time Aged 96, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Bridge Infrastructure: Matching the Resources to the Need, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Q. Cao, East Asian backpacker tourists’ motivations for participating in backpacking, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Schwirtz, R. White, Tractor-Trailer Kills 8-Year-Old Boy Walking to School in Queens, New York Times. (2013) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition
AbbreviationPattern Recognit.
ISSN (print)0031-3203
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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