How to format your references using the Pattern Recognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Recognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Nauenberg, Comment on “How cats lap: water uptake by Felis catus,” Science. 334 (2011) 311; author reply 311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Yin, A.P. Alivisatos, Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis and the organic-inorganic interface, Nature. 437 (2005) 664–670.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Lohse, B. Schmitz, M. Versluis, Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles, Nature. 413 (2001) 477–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Singh, M. Hossain, S.K. Gurupatham, K. Shah, E. Amah, D. Ju, M. Janjua, S. Nudurupati, I. Fischer, Molecular-like hierarchical self-assembly of monolayers of mixtures of particles, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7427.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.R. Flynn, How to Improve Your Mind, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
M. Hofrichter, ed., Industrial Applications, second, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Karimou, J.F. Myoupo, Randomized Permutation Routing in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks with Unknown Destinations, in: K.A. Agha (Ed.), Ad-Hoc Networking: IFIP 19th World Computer Congress, TC-6, IFIP Interactive Conference on Ad-Hoc Networking, August 20–25, 2006, Santiago, Chile, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006: pp. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Recognition.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Pumping CO2 Underground Can Help Fight Climate Change. Why Is It Stuck In Second Gear?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Public Transportation: New Starts Program Challenges and Preliminary Observations on Expediting Project Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.S. Ireland, The Role Family Communication Patterns Play in Shaping People’s Responses and Perceived Outcomes to Boundary Turbulence via Privacy Breaches in Their Personal Relationships, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Veggies vs. a Courthouse: Worries and Reassurance, New York Times. (2000) 149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Recognition
AbbreviationPattern Recognit.
ISSN (print)0031-3203
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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