How to format your references using the Patient Safety in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Patient Safety in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pollard TD. Genomics, the cytoskeleton and motility. Nature. 2001;409:842–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Blatt R, Wineland D. Entangled states of trapped atomic ions. Nature. 2008;453:1008–15.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ford EB, Seager S, Turner EL. Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability. Nature. 2001;412:885–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ohtani N, Zebedee Z, Huot TJ, Stinson JA, Sugimoto M, Ohashi Y, et al. Opposing effects of Ets and Id proteins on p16INK4a expression during cellular senescence. Nature. 2001;409:1067–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Liu HH. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Yang Z-Z. Capture and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide with Polyethylene Glycol. Song Q-W, He L-N, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stuht T, Speck A, Feja S, Witt S, Pulvermüller E. Rule Determination and Process Verification Using Business Capabilities. In: Sandkuhl K, Seigerroth U, Stirna J, editors. The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: 5th IFIP WG 81 Working Conference, PoEM 2012, Rostock, Germany, November 7-8, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 46–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Patient Safety in Surgery.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Breaking News: DRACULA Found On Mars [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/newsflash-shape-mars-probably-not-coffin/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Insurance: Federal Insurance Program Needs Improvements to Ensure Success. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jul. Report No.: RCED-94-151.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jones G. The impact of song on repeated reading: An examination of comprehension, fluency, and engagement with texts of Hispanic second graders in a Title I urban school [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. At the Stadium, a Parade of Respect. New York Times. 2011 Oct 1;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePatient Safety in Surgery
AbbreviationPatient Saf. Surg.
ISSN (online)1754-9493
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles