How to format your references using the Patient Safety in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Patient Safety in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nogrady B. Neurobiology: life beyond the pain. Nature. 2014;515:S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nodine MD, Bartel DP. Maternal and paternal genomes contribute equally to the transcriptome of early plant embryos. Nature. 2012;482:94–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rougier GW, Forasiepi AM, Martinelli AG. Comment on “Independent origins of middle ear bones in monotremes and therians” (II). Science. 2005;309:1492; author reply 1492.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Als TD, Vila R, Kandul NP, Nash DR, Yen S-H, Hsu Y-F, et al. The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature. 2004;432:386–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Banks D. An Introduction to Thermogeology: Ground Source Heating and Cooling. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Jue JK, editor. Heaven upon earth. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Liang J, Wang Z, Liu X. On Synchronization of Coupled Delayed Neural Networks. In: Kyamakya K, Halang WA, Unger H, Chedjou JC, Rulkov NF, Li Z, editors. Recent Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 117–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Patient Safety in Surgery.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Farmer Finds Enormous Prehistoric Sea Monster Jaw. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Data Transparency: Oversight Needed to Address Underreporting and Inconsistencies on Federal Award Website. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-476.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Freund SH. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. American Is Suspended. New York Times. 2014 Jan 15;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePatient Safety in Surgery
AbbreviationPatient Saf. Surg.
ISSN (online)1754-9493
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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