How to format your references using the Patient Safety in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Patient Safety in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Orrit M. Chemistry. The motions of an enzyme soloist. Science. 2003;302:239–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Manukyan M, Singh PB. Epigenome rejuvenation: HP1β mobility as a measure of pluripotent and senescent chromatin ground states. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4789.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. De Moraes CM, Mescher MC, Tumlinson JH. Caterpillar-induced nocturnal plant volatiles repel conspecific females. Nature. 2001;410:577–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Meijers R, Puettmann-Holgado R, Skiniotis G, Liu J-H, Walz T, Wang J-H, et al. Structural basis of Dscam isoform specificity. Nature. 2007;449:487–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stoican F, Olaru S. Set-theoretic Fault-tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Zhang J, editor. PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: Fundamentals and Applications. London: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ma D, Bondade R. Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters. In: Bondade R, editor. Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 71–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Patient Safety in Surgery.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. First North American Measles Death Since 2003. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-95-61.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Voss J. Supported housing program for severely mentally ill homeless individuals: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Mets Sign Six, Including deGrom, Harvey and Familia; Flores Waits for More. New York Times. 2017 Jan 14;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePatient Safety in Surgery
AbbreviationPatient Saf. Surg.
ISSN (online)1754-9493
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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