How to format your references using the Patient Safety in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Patient Safety in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marquet PA. Ecology. Of predators, prey, and power laws. Science. 2002;295:2229–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kilpivaara O, Aaltonen LA. Diagnostic cancer genome sequencing and the contribution of germline variants. Science. 2013;339:1559–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Saran R, Stolojan V, Curry RJ. Ultrahigh performance C60 nanorod large area flexible photoconductor devices via ultralow organic and inorganic photodoping. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5041.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Valiyaveetil FI, Leonetti M, Muir TW, Mackinnon R. Ion selectivity in a semisynthetic K+ channel locked in the conductive conformation. Science. 2006;314:1004–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Free ML. CBT and Christianity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Baveye PC, Laba M, Mysiak J, editors. Uncertainties in Environmental Modelling and Consequences for Policy Making. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Faceli K, de Carvalho ACPLF, de Souto MCP. Multi-Objective Clustering Ensemble with Prior Knowledge. In: Sagot M-F, Walter MEMT, editors. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Second Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2007, Angra dos Reis, Brazil, August 29-31, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 34–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Patient Safety in Surgery.

Blog post
1. Davis J. One-Third Of All Natural World Heritage Sites Under Threat From Resource Extraction Activity [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Weather Forecasting: Recommendations to Address New Weather Processing System Development Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 May. Report No.: AIMD-96-74.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dang H. The cummulative incidence estimate versus the Kaplan Meier method in medical research [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. An Industry Fractured. New York Times. 2016 Aug 26;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePatient Safety in Surgery
AbbreviationPatient Saf. Surg.
ISSN (online)1754-9493
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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