How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith C. Getting up speed. Nature 2004;428:229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coles P, Chiang LY. Characterizing the nonlinear growth of large-scale structure in the Universe. Nature 2000;406:376–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
d’Aignaux JN, Cousens SN, Smith PG. Predictability of the UK variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic. Science 2001;294:1729–31.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Davidson DW, Cook SC, Snelling RR et al. Explaining the abundance of ants in lowland tropical rainforest canopies. Science 2003;300:969–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çapin TK, Pandzic IS, Magnenat-Thalmann N et al. Avatars in Networked Virtual Environments. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2001.
An edited book
Reid J. JavaScript Programmer’s Reference. Valentine T (ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Schein M. Procedure diagnostiche razionali. In: Schein M, Rogers PN (eds.). Chirurgia Addominale d’urgenza: Il Buon Senso Di Schein: Guida Pratica per Sopravvivere Nella Trincea Delle Urgenze Chirurgiche. Milano: Springer, 2007, 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Luntz S. Scientists Have “Squeezed” Light. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: FTA Could Relieve New Starts Program Funding Constraints. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Montano M. Supporting juvenile offenders reentering the community: A grant proposal project. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte L. Scouting Report. New York Times. March 17, 2011:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Coles and Chiang 2000; Smith 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coles and Chiang 2000)
  • Three authors: (d’Aignaux, Cousens and Smith 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Davidson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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