How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stajic J. Quantum information processing. The future of quantum information processing. Introduction. Science 2013;339:1163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tao FF, Salmeron M. In situ studies of chemistry and structure of materials in reactive environments. Science 2011;331:171–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley J, Reuter D, Frings S. Facilitation of calmodulin-mediated odor adaptation by cAMP-gated channel subunits. Science 2001;294:2176–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Belluscio L, Lodovichi C, Feinstein P et al. Odorant receptors instruct functional circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. Nature 2002;419:296–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chiasson AD. Geothermal Heat Pump and Heat Engine Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Gopalakrishnan K, Khaitan SK, Kalogirou S eds. Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahn S, Hong B. Reordering of Location Identifiers for Indexing an RFID Tag Object Database. In: Bhowmick SS, Küng J, Wagner R (eds.). Database and Expert Systems Applications: 19th International Conference, DEXA 2008, Turin, Italy, September 1-5, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, 41–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Volunteer Discovers 70,000-Year-Old-Mammoth In Idaho Reservoir. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Olympic Security: Better Planning Can Enhance U.S. Support to Future Olympic Games. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brawley K. A nutrition and physical activity curriculum for pregnant women. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. justices decline terrorism case of a u.s. citizen. New York Times. April 4, 2006:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stajic 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Tao and Salmeron 2011; Stajic 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tao and Salmeron 2011)
  • Three authors: (Bradley, Reuter and Frings 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Belluscio et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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