How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batail P. Chemistry. Tuning molecular solids. Science 2013;341:135–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Viscidi RP, Shah KV. Cancer. A skin cancer virus? Science 2008;319:1049–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Debayle E, Kennett B, Priestley K. Global azimuthal seismic anisotropy and the unique plate-motion deformation of Australia. Nature 2005;433:509–12.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sukharev S, Betanzos M, Chiang CS et al. The gating mechanism of the large mechanosensitive channel MscL. Nature 2001;409:720–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith MC, Sherman DM. Goat Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
An edited book
Harari PM, Connor NP, Grau C eds. Functional Preservation and Quality of Life in Head and Neck Radiotherapy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Altman E, Avrachenkov K, Barakat C et al. A Multilevel Approach for the Modelling of Large TCP/IP Networks. In: Ince AN, Bragg A (eds.). Recent Advances in Modeling and Simulation Tools for Communication Networks and Services. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2007, 69–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Hale T. Cost Of Hurricane Damage In The US Could Triple By 2100 Due To Global Warming. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: Incomplete Data and Funding Approach Increase Cost Risk for Upgrade Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez JM. A recruitment campaign for Latino non-kin foster parents: A grant proposal. 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Couturier K. The Agony, and Occasional Rewards, of the Overbooked Flight. New York Times. April 18, 2017:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batail 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Viscidi and Shah 2008; Batail 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Viscidi and Shah 2008)
  • Three authors: (Debayle, Kennett and Priestley 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sukharev et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles