How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soderblom DR. Astronomy. How old is that star? Science 2009;323:45–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clancy CE, Xiang YK. Biological techniques: Wrapped around the heart. Nature 2014;507:43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiang GY, Hofmann HF, Pryde GJ. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe. Sci Rep 2013;3:2684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Du X, Skachko I, Duerr F et al. Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons in graphene. Nature 2009;462:192–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles R. 150 Contractual Problems and Their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Perna C, Sibillo M eds. Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Actuarial Sciences and Finance. Milano: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Kang J, Sim KM. A Brokering Protocol for Agent-Based Grid Resource Discovery. In: Ślęzak D, Kim T-H, Yau SS, et al. (eds.). Grid and Distributed Computing: International Conference, GDC 2009, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conferences, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Davis J. Dinosaurs May Have Been Cooing To Each Other. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Computer Systems Protection Act of 1978 (S. 1766). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler BK. Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner J. Big Setback For Wright; Season Ends For Cespedes. New York Times. August 29, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soderblom 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Soderblom 2009; Clancy and Xiang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clancy and Xiang 2014)
  • Three authors: (Xiang, Hofmann and Pryde 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Du et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles