How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nye MJ. Portraits of science. “The most versatile physicist of his generation.” Science 2002;296:49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehner N, Howk JC. A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way. Science 2011;334:955–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mancini G, Ferrari PF, Palagi E. Rapid facial mimicry in geladas. Sci Rep 2013;3:1527.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Essers MAG, de Vries-Smits LMM, Barker N et al. Functional interaction between beta-catenin and FOXO in oxidative stress signaling. Science 2005;308:1181–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouchet O. Wireless Optical Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2012.
An edited book
Pinaud R, Tremere LA eds. Immediate Early Genes in Sensory Processing, Cognitive Performance and Neurological Disorders. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Schöbel A, Kratz A. A Bicriteria Approach for Robust Timetabling. In: Ahuja RK, Möhring RH, Zaroliagis CD (eds.). Robust and Online Large-Scale Optimization: Models and Techniques for Transportation Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, 119–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Five Teams Enter Final Stretch To Win Google Lunar XPRIZE Moon Race And Scoop $20 Million. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: A Comprehensive Plan Could Facilitate Implementation of a National Performance Management Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huff JA. Interactions of glyphosate and dicamba in controlling key weed species. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Park as Long As You Like. New York Times. June 24, 2010:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nye 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Nye 2002; Lehner and Howk 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lehner and Howk 2011)
  • Three authors: (Mancini, Ferrari and Palagi 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Essers et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles