How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edgerton D. The charge of technology. Nature 2008;455:1030–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cho H-S, Leahy DJ. Structure of the extracellular region of HER3 reveals an interdomain tether. Science 2002;297:1330–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB. A global call for new polio vaccines. Nature 2005;434:699–700.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schroder A, Aeppli G, Coldea R et al. Onset of antiferromagnetism in heavy-fermion metals. Nature 2000;407:351–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Magnasco V. Models for Bonding in Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Fillinger S, Elad Y eds. Botrytis – the Fungus, the Pathogen and Its Management in Agricultural Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemonnier D. Solution of the Boltzmann Equationfor Phonon Transport. In: Volz S (ed.). Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, 77–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Netherlands’ Railway Aims To Run On 100% Wind Power By 2018. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FBI Management of Its Automated Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dimapilis B. Service line extension: Acquisition of fluoroscopy equipment to supplement pain management procedures. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Lucky Loser in Qualifying Becomes Tired Winner of the Bronx Classic. New York Times. August 21, 2000:D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edgerton 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cho and Leahy 2002; Edgerton 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cho and Leahy 2002)
  • Three authors: (Heymann, Sutter and Aylward 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Schroder et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles