How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cobb M. Wondrous order. Nature 2001;413:779.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lillard A, Else-Quest N. The early years. Evaluating Montessori education. Science 2006;313:1893–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rome LC, Flynn L, Yoo TD. Biomechanics: rubber bands reduce the cost of carrying loads. Nature 2006;444:1023–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krekelberg B, Dannenberg S, Hoffmann K-P et al. Neural correlates of implied motion. Nature 2003;424:674–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvapulle MJ, Sen PK. Constrained Statistical Inference: Inequality, Order, and Shape Restrictions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
An edited book
Cowling P, Merz P eds. Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization: 10th European Conference, EvoCOP 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, April 7-9, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalra MK. Dual-Source CT: Practical Aspects of Techniques and Applications. In: Kalra MK, Saini S, Rubin GD (eds.). MDCT: From Protocols to Practice. Milano: Springer, 2008, 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Edge Closer To Universal Flu Vaccine. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Research Supports Limited Use of Personal Computer Aviation Training Devices for Pilots. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pearson D. A High-Level Fuzzy Logic Guidance System for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Tasked to Perform an Autonomous Launch and Recovery (ALR) of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV). 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Two Legislative Seats To Be Filled on March 27. New York Times. February 18, 2007:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cobb 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cobb 2001; Lillard and Else-Quest 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lillard and Else-Quest 2006)
  • Three authors: (Rome, Flynn and Yoo 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Krekelberg et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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