How to format your references using the Pathogens and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogens and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markl H. Research doesn’t denigrate humanity. Nature 2001;412:479–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hetz SK, Bradley TJ. Insects breathe discontinuously to avoid oxygen toxicity. Nature 2005;433:516–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson DS, Komdeur J, Burke T. Avian behaviour: Altruism and infidelity among warblers. Nature 2003;422:580.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roberge A, Feldman PD, Weinberger AJ et al. Stabilization of the disk around beta Pictoris by extremely carbon-rich gas. Nature 2006;441:724–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoppert M. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
Broy M, Grünbauer J, Harel D et al. eds. Engineering Theories of Software Intensive Systems: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Engineering Theories of Software Intensive Systems Marktoberdorf, Germany 3–15 August 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Smyth MD, Rubin J. Ependymoma. In: Gupta N, Banerjee A, Haas-Kogan D (eds.). Pediatric CNS Tumors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogens and Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Potential Obesity-Contributing Gene Identified. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Improved Budgeting Could Help FAA Better Determine Future Operations and Maintenance Priorities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wulfsberg JC. Singing Turkish, performing Turkishness: Message and audience in the song competition of the International Turkish Olympiad. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Weary of War and Ready to Laugh. New York Times. October 10, 2014:C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markl 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Markl 2001; Hetz and Bradley 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hetz and Bradley 2005)
  • Three authors: (Richardson, Komdeur and Burke 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Roberge et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogens and Disease
AbbreviationPathog. Dis.
ISSN (online)2049-632X
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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