How to format your references using the Pathogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Schaffer S. The laird of physics. Nature 2011;471:289–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Bernays EA, Singer MS. Insect defences: taste alteration and endoparasites. Nature 2005;436:476.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Zhao Y, Samal E, Srivastava D. Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2 during cardiogenesis. Nature 2005;436:214–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Panda S, Zhang J, Yang L, Anand GS, Ding JL. Molecular interaction between natural IgG and ficolin--mechanistic insights on adaptive-innate immune crosstalk. Sci Rep 2014;4:3675.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Rogers DW. Concise Physical Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Sen S. Hyper-lattice Algebraic Model for Data Warehousing. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Kriglstein S, Brown R, Wallner G. Workflow Patterns as a Means to Model Task Succession in Games: A Preliminary Case Study. In: Pisan Y, Sgouros NM, Marsh T, editors. Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2014: 13th International Conference, ICEC 2014, Sydney, Australia, October 1-3, 2014. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 36–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogenesis.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Infants Too Young For Vaccines Catch Measles From Unvaccinated Children At Disneyland. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/disneyland-measles-outbreak-hits-children-too-young-be-vaccinated/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management: Amtrak’s Route Profitability Schedules Need Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Meyer MA. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times 2015:C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogenesis
ISSN (print)2214-6636
Scope

Other styles