How to format your references using the Pathogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Trivedi B. The primate connection. Nature 2010;466:S5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Mandelli D, Tosatti E. Nanophysics: Microscopic friction emulators. Nature 2015;526:332–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Tomoyasu Y, Wheeler SR, Denell RE. Ultrabithorax is required for membranous wing identity in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Nature 2005;433:643–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Nieuwenhuis J, Adamopoulos A, Bleijerveld OB, Mazouzi A, Stickel E, Celie P, et al. Vasohibins encode tubulin detyrosinating activity. Science 2017;358:1453–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Edgerton M. A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Wu G, Coupé P, Zhan Y, Munsell B, Rueckert D, editors. Patch-Based Techniques in Medical Imaging: First International Workshop, Patch-MI 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 9, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 9467. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Danese M, Lazzari M, Murgante B. Integrated Geological, Geomorphological and Geostatistical Analysis to Study Macroseismic Effects of 1980 Irpinian Earthquake in Urban Areas (Southern Italy). In: Gervasi O, Taniar D, Murgante B, Laganà A, Mun Y, Gavrilova ML, editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2009: International Conference, Seoul, Korea, June 29-July 2, 2009, Proceedings, Part I, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathogenesis.

Blog post
[1]
Andrews R. The Enigmatic “Wheel of Giants” Monument As Old As Stonehenge. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Interim Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research and Technology Transfer Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Gifford SC. (Re)making men, representing the Caribbean nation: Authorial individuation in works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Brantley B. Land Mines in the Battlefields of Home and Office. New York Times 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathogenesis
ISSN (print)2214-6636
Scope

Other styles