How to format your references using the Healthcare Management Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare Management Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. A change of gear at Siemens. Nature. 2007;448(7156):852-853.
A journal article with 2 authors
Govers F, Angenent GC. Plant science. Fertility goddesses as Trojan horses. Science. 2010;330(6006):922-923.
A journal article with 3 authors
Appelbaum I, Huang B, Monsma DJ. Electronic measurement and control of spin transport in silicon. Nature. 2007;447(7142):295-298.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barik AR, Bapna M, Drabold DA, Adarsh KV. Ultrafast light induced unusually broad transient absorption in the sub-bandgap region of GeSe2 thin film. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene J. Clients with Complex Needs: Interprofessional Practice. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Stadtler H. Advanced Planning in Supply Chains: Illustrating the Concepts Using an SAP® APO Case Study. (Fleischmann B, Grunow M, Meyr H, Sürie C, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed M, Singh VK, Upadhyay RS. Brassica Rhizosphere-Microbe Interactions and Their Role in Phytoremediation. In: Anjum NA, Ahmad I, Pereira ME, Duarte AC, Umar S, Khan NA, eds. The Plant Family Brassicaceae: Contribution Towards Phytoremediation. Environmental Pollution. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012:139-152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare Management Forum.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Stem Cell Therapy Could Treat Mitochondrial Diseases. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: SSA Needs to Address Limitations in Management Controls and Human Capital Planning to Support Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederick K. Wool and Water. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Worst Call Ever? Sure. Kill the Umpires? Never. New York Times. June 4, 2010:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare Management Forum
AbbreviationHealthc. Manage. Forum
ISSN (print)0840-4704
ScopeHealth Policy

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