How to format your references using the Healthcare Management Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare Management Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beutler E. Cell biology. “Pumping” iron: the proteins. Science. 2004;306(5704):2051-2053.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu W, Angell CA. Solvent-free electrolytes with aqueous solution-like conductivities. Science. 2003;302(5644):422-425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gunn LJ, Allison A, Abbott D. A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6461.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mauk BH, Mitchell DG, Krimigis SM, Roelof EC, Paranicas CP. Energetic neutral atoms from a trans-Europa gas torus at Jupiter. Nature. 2003;421(6926):920-922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corns TN. A History of Seventeenth-Century English Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Abaza R, ed. Robotic Renal Surgery: Benign and Cancer Surgery for the Kidneys and Ureters. Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gélinas F, Camion C, Bates K, et al. The Challenges of Participatory Justice for Public Adjudication. In: Camion C, Bates K, Anstis S, Piché C, Khan M, Grant E, eds. Foundations of Civil Justice: Toward a Value-Based Framework for Reform. Springer International Publishing; 2015:81-104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare Management Forum.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Lift-Off For NASA Mission To Collect Grains From An Asteroid That May Be On Collision Course With Earth. IFLScience. Published September 12, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version). U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey RU. A Risk Analysis Tool for Evaluating ROI of TRA for Major Defense Acquisition Programs. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman J. Focus in Subway Shooting Is on Whether Deadly Force Was Justified. New York Times. March 12, 2015:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare Management Forum
AbbreviationHealthc. Manage. Forum
ISSN (print)0840-4704
ScopeHealth Policy

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