How to format your references using the Healthcare Management Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare Management Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevens CF. An evolutionary scaling law for the primate visual system and its basis in cortical function. Nature. 2001;411(6834):193-195.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla C, Harbury PB. Modular enzymes. Nature. 2001;409(6817):247-252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fang Y, Seong NH, Dlott DD. Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Science. 2008;321(5887):388-392.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gurwitz D, Fortier I, Lunshof JE, Knoppers BM. Research ethics. Children and population biobanks. Science. 2009;325(5942):818-819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iyengar SS, Parameshwaran N, Phoha VV, Balakrishnan N, Okoye CD. Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Bressoud D. Teaching and Learning of Calculus. (Ghedamsi I, Martinez-Luaces V, Törner G, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnars U, Falldorf C, Watson J, Jüptner W. Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI). In: Falldorf C, Watson J, Jüptner W, eds. Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing: Principles, Techniques and Applications. Springer; 2015:69-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare Management Forum.

Blog post
Andrew D. Jungle Boogie: Five Dancing Animals Who Know How To Strut Their Stuff. IFLScience. Published November 17, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Science Foundation: Need for Additional Icebreaking Research Vessel Not Demonstrated. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koyanagi T. Design and Synthesis of Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Buffett Bets on Energy With $9 Billion Bid for Texas Utility. New York Times. July 7, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare Management Forum
AbbreviationHealthc. Manage. Forum
ISSN (print)0840-4704
ScopeHealth Policy

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