How to format your references using the Healthcare Management Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Healthcare Management Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donley EA. Physics. A view on energy transfer between cold atoms. Science. 2013;342(6161):942-943.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seddon N, Bearpark T. Observation of the inverse Doppler effect. Science. 2003;302(5650):1537-1540.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weng JK, Philippe RN, Noel JP. The rise of chemodiversity in plants. Science. 2012;336(6089):1667-1670.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kyba CCM, Wagner JM, Kuechly HU, et al. Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Franco P. Understanding Bitcoin. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Palsberg J, Su Z, eds. Static Analysis: 16th International Symposium, SAS 2009, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 9-11, 2009. Proceedings. Vol 5673. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Jan Y, Jozwiak L. CABAC Accelerator Architectures for Video Compression in Future Multimedia: A Survey. In: Bertels K, Dimopoulos N, Silvano C, Wong S, eds. Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation: 9th International Workshop, SAMOS 2009, Samos, Greece, July 20-23, 2009. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:24-35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Healthcare Management Forum.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dawn Of A New Era: The Revolutionary Ion Engine That Took Spacecraft To Ceres. IFLScience. Published March 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Efforts to Improve Supply Chain Can Be Enhanced by Linkage to Outcomes, Progress in Transforming Business Operations, and Reexamination of Logistics Governance and Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le R. Three-Power Power System State Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter with CompactRIO Implementation. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Battle Over a Pillar to Nobel Yields No Statue, No Peace. New York Times. May 13, 2001:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealthcare Management Forum
AbbreviationHealthc. Manage. Forum
ISSN (print)0840-4704
ScopeHealth Policy

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