How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. The best years of our lives. Nature. 2004 Jul 1;430(6995):121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewis CL, Coffroth MA. The acquisition of exogenous algal symbionts by an octocoral after bleaching. Science. 2004 Jun 4;304(5676):1490–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coplan PM, Mitchnick M, Rosenberg ZF. Public health. Regulatory challenges in microbicide development. Science. 2004 Jun 25;304(5679):1911–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schreiber K, Crawford JD, Fetter M, Tweed D. The motor side of depth vision. Nature. 2001 Apr 12;410(6830):819–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Purkis S, Klemas V. Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Dellacherie C. Inverse M-Matrices and Ultrametric Matrices. Martinez S, San Martin J, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. X, 236 p. 14 illus. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; vol. 2118).
A chapter in an edited book
Alepis E, Virvou M. Extending Mobile Personalization to Students with Special Needs. In: Virvou M, editor. Object-Oriented User Interfaces for Personalized Mobile Learning. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 47–64. (Intelligent Systems Reference Library).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cannabis, Cannabinoids and Cancer – The Evidence So Far [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:–-evidence-so-far/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Defaulted Student Loans: Preliminary Analysis of Student Loan Borrowers and Defaulters. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jun. Report No.: HRD-88-112BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verdi KC. What Does It Mean to Be a Service-Learning Teacher? - An Autoethnography [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Art Rooted in Matters of the Heart and the Mind. New York Times. 2015 Apr 26;CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Medical Research
ISSN (print)0030-9842

Other styles