How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Burns LD. Sustainable mobility: A vision of our transport future. Nature. 2013 May 9;497(7448):181–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Becker A, Grünewald U. Disaster management. Flood risk in Central Europe. Science. 2003 May 16;300(5622):1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Moynier F, Yin Q-Z, Schauble E. Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science. 2011 Mar 18;331(6023):1417–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pertz O, Hodgson L, Klemke RL, Hahn KM. Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity in migrating cells. Nature. 2006 Apr 20;440(7087):1069–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dijksterhuis GB. Multivariate Data Analysis in Sensory and Consumer Science. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Arcuri FP. Manuale di sociologia: Teorie e strumenti per la ricerca sociale. Arcuri F, editor. Milano: Springer; 2010. XIII, 129 pagg. (Metodologie Riabilitative in Logopedia; vol. 20).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zhang L, He S, Yang D, Wei Q. SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS ON RADIATION DAMAGE OF METHYL SILICONE RUBBER. In: Kleiman JI, editor. PROTECTION OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES FROM THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 35–41. (Space Technology Proceedings).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. This Super-Realistic 3D Printed Body Is Helping Train Surgeons. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Weather Forecasting: National Weather Service Is Planning to Improve Service and Gain Efficiency, but Impacts of Potential Changes Are Not Yet Known. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Jul. Report No.: GAO-06-792.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Moeller RA. “No thanks, those are boy books”: A feminist cultural analysis of graphic novels as curricular materials [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Justices Overturn $79.5 Million in Punitive Damages Against Philip Morris. New York Times. 2007 Feb 21;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Medical Research
ISSN (print)0030-9842
Scope

Other styles