How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Penner AM. Social Science. Gender inequality in science. Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):234–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chklovskii DB, Bargmann CI. Neuroscience. The mind of a male? Science. 2012 Jul 27;337(6093):416–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Czaplicka A, Holyst JA, Sloot PMA. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks. Sci Rep. 2013 Feb 6;3:1223.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Montoya D, Zavala MA, Rodríguez MA, Purves DW. Animal versus wind dispersal and the robustness of tree species to deforestation. Science. 2008 Jun 13;320(5882):1502–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barkham R. Real Estate and Globalisation. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Chikanda A, Crush J, Walton-Roberts M, editors. Diasporas, Development and Governance. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XX, 275 p. 38 illus., 7 illus. in color. (Global Migration Issues; vol. 5).
A chapter in an edited book
Dimond R, Patel RP, Zaidi STR. Fluoroquinolones. In: Zaidi STR, Roberts JA, editors. Drug Dosing in Obesity: Volume I: Antimicrobials. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 45–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Have Chinese Skeletons Been Found In A Roman-Era London Grave? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Broadband Performance: Additional Actions Could Help FCC Evaluate Its Efforts to Inform Consumers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Apr. Report No.: GAO-15-363.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conti AI. Dirty hands, virtue ethics, and consequentialism [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Winerip M, Gebeloff R. The Scourge of Racial Bias in New York State’s Prisons. New York Times. 2016 Dec 3;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Medical Research
ISSN (print)0030-9842

Other styles