How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lok C. Plans to reduce acceptable arsenic limit put on hold. Nature. 2001 Mar 29;410(6828):503.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milligan AJ, Morel FMM. A proton buffering role for silica in diatoms. Science. 2002 Sep 13;297(5588):1848–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choudhury S, Morgan D, Uberuaga BP. Massive interfacial reconstruction at misfit dislocations in metal/oxide interfaces. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 17;4:6533.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Himeno M, Kitazawa Y, Yoshida T, Maejima K, Yamaji Y, Oshima K, et al. Purple top symptoms are associated with reduction of leaf cell death in phytoplasma-infected plants. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 17;4:4111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu D, Gharbi A, Stefanoiu D, Borne P. Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Issar G. Operational Excellence: A Concise Guide to Basic Concepts and Their Application. 1st ed. 2016. Navon LR, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIII, 194 p. 27 illus. (Management for Professionals).
A chapter in an edited book
Vollbrecht M, Malsch A, Hook ML, Simpson MR, Khan A, Malone ML. Acute Care for Elders (ACE) Tracker and e-Geriatrician Telemedicine Programs. In: Malone ML, Capezuti EA, Palmer RM, editors. Geriatrics Models of Care: Bringing “Best Practice” to an Aging America. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 51–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Insect Exoskeleton Shedding Is Like Having Your Lungs Torn Out. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Mediation Board Mandates in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jun. Report No.: GAO-12-835R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moretto L. Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between Decision-Driven Scenarios and Decision Confidence in High-Velocity Environments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Begins Choosing Which Payments to Make. New York Times. 2015 Dec 2;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Medical Research
ISSN (print)0030-9842

Other styles