How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard C. Heritability: The family roots of obesity. Nature. 2014 Apr 17;508(7496):S58-60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zubkov MV, Tarran GA. High bacterivory by the smallest phytoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature. 2008 Sep 11;455(7210):224–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hirjibehedin CF, Lutz CP, Heinrich AJ. Spin coupling in engineered atomic structures. Science. 2006 May 19;312(5776):1021–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shenoy SK, McDonald PH, Kohout TA, Lefkowitz RJ. Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated beta 2-adrenergic receptor and beta-arrestin. Science. 2001 Nov 9;294(5545):1307–13.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sewell G. Computational Methods of Linear Algebra. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Swoboda B, Morschett D, Rudolph T, Schnedlitz P, Schramm-Klein H, editors. European Retail Research. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag; 2009. IX, 227 p. (European Retail Research).
A chapter in an edited book
Kanaya T, Takayama Y, Ogino Y, Matsuba G, Nishida K. Precursor of Primary Nucleation in Isotactic Polystyrene Induced by Shear Flow. In: Reiter G, Strobl GR, editors. Progress in Understanding of Polymer Crystallization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 87–96. (Lecture Notes in Physics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Baboons Hang With Those Like Them [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications Acquisitions: Information on GSA’s Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-88-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Queener JD. A Post-School Outcome Study of Students with Learning Disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. Flakes: These Monkeys Make Tools, but Don’t Use Them. New York Times. 2016 Oct 19;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Medical Research
ISSN (print)0030-9842

Other styles