How to format your references using the Pakistan Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins F. Has the revolution arrived? Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):674–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pevzner P, Shamir R. Computing has changed biology--biology education must catch up. Science. 2009 Jul 31;325(5940):541–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gugliotti LA, Feldheim DL, Eaton BE. RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles. Science. 2004 May 7;304(5672):850–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alloing M, Lemaître A, Galopin E, Dubin F. Optically programmable excitonic traps. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blicq RS, Moretto LA. Writing Reports to Get Results. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Watson A, Ohtani M, editors. Task Design In Mathematics Education: an ICMI study 22. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XVIII, 339 p. 123 illus., 39 illus. in color. (New ICMI Study Series).
A chapter in an edited book
Ledermann JA, Raja FA. Mucinous Cancers: Ovary. In: Reed N, Green JA, Gershenson DM, Siddiqui N, Connor R, editors. Rare and Uncommon Gynecological Cancers: A Clinical Guide. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 67–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. The Real Reason Clowns Scare Us.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Education Assistance: USAID Has Implemented Primary Grade Reading Programs but Has Not Yet Measured Progress toward Its Strategic Goal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 May. Report No.: GAO-15-479.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaddy M. An empirical assessment of the crosscutting concern problem [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. New Treasury Rules Ease 401(k) Annuity Purchase. New York Times. 2012 Feb 3;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Journal of Medical Research
ISSN (print)0030-9842

Other styles