How to format your references using the Pain Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gong P. China needs no foreign help to feed itself. Nature. 474(7349), 7 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Changeux J-P, Edelstein SJ. Allosteric mechanisms of signal transduction. Science. 308(5727), 1424–1428 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Baron-Cohen S, Knickmeyer RC, Belmonte MK. Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism. Science. 310(5749), 819–823 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Duft D, Achtzehn T, Müller R, Huber BA, Leisner T. Coulomb fission: Rayleigh jets from levitated microdroplets. Nature. 421(6919), 128 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells JT. Corporate Fraud Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Arnon I. APOS Theory: A Framework for Research and Curriculum Development in Mathematics Education. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Marien H, Steyaert M, Heremans P. A/D Conversion. In: Analog Organic Electronics: Building Blocks for Organic Smart Sensor Systems on Foil. Steyaert M, Heremans P (Eds.), Springer, New York, NY, 93–109 (2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management.

Blog post
Andrew E. 9,000-Year-Old Case Of Ritualistic Beheading That May Be Oldest In Americas. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps: Better Targeted Career Training and Improved Preenrollment Information Could Enhance Female Residential Student Recruitment and Retention. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Faughn CE. Social and Physical Cognition in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ): Preliminary Investigation of Domain-General versus Domain-Specific Intelligence. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Shoumali K, Hubbard B. U.S. Strike on Syria Fuels Uncertainty on the Ground. New York Times, A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management
AbbreviationPain Manag.
ISSN (print)1758-1869
ISSN (online)1758-1877

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