How to format your references using the Pain Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savolainen O. Evolution. The genomic basis of local climatic adaptation. Science. 334(6052), 49–50 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Shi C, Murphy CT. Mating induces shrinking and death in Caenorhabditis mothers. Science. 343(6170), 536–540 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee E, Pandey NB, Popel AS. Lymphatic endothelial cells support tumor growth in breast cancer. Sci. Rep. 4, 5853 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Neff U, Burns SJ, Mangini A, Mudelsee M, Fleitmann D, Matter A. Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature. 411(6835), 290–293 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter RJ. Local Emergency Planning Committee Guidebook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lüdtke A, editor. Everyday Life in Mass Dictatorship: Collusion and Evasion. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Norell U. Dependently Typed Programming in Agda. In: Advanced Functional Programming: 6th International School, AFP 2008, Heijen, The Netherlands, May 2008, Revised Lectures. Koopman P, Plasmeijer R, Swierstra D (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 230–266 (2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management.

Blog post
Taub B. The Primate Brain Is Wired To Handle Any Situation Life Throws At It, Study Suggests [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: Estimates of Handicapped Indian Preschoolers and Sufficiency of Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beard JA. Evidence of Leadership Competencies in the Journal of Mary Easton Sibley, a Pioneering 19th Century Women’s College Founder. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Koblin J. TV Host ‘Ashamed’ of Lewd Chat With Trump. New York Times, A12 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management
AbbreviationPain Manag.
ISSN (print)1758-1869
ISSN (online)1758-1877

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