How to format your references using the Pain Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Cyranoski D. Western Japan: Go west, young postdoc. Nature. 424(6946), 352–353 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML. Biophysics. Clutch dynamics. Science. 322(5908), 1646–1647 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Antonioni A, Sanchez A, Tomassini M. Global information and mobility support coordination among humans. Sci. Rep. 4, 6458 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Merz JF, Kriss AG, Leonard DGB, Cho MK. Diagnostic testing fails the test. Nature. 415(6872), 577–579 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Robinson TR. Genetics for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1.
Rousseau C. Mathématiques et Technologie. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Könings B, Schaub F, Weber M. Privacy and Trust in Ambient Intelligent Environments. In: Next Generation Intelligent Environments: Ambient Adaptive Systems. Ultes S, Nothdurft F, Heinroth T, Minker W (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 133–164 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Monkeys Photographed Eating Bats For The First Time. IFLScience (2016).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Key Controls NASA Employs to Guide Use and Management of Funded Space Act Agreements Are Generally Sufficient, but Some Could Be Strengthened and Clarified. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Becker M. Women’s Descriptions Six Months Post Notification of Positive BRCA 1/2 Genetic Mutations. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. Wine, Cheese and Polyamory. New York Times, C1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management
AbbreviationPain Manag.
ISSN (print)1758-1869
ISSN (online)1758-1877
Scope

Other styles