How to format your references using the Pain Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder N. Director of Wellcome centre resigns over damning report. Nature. 404(6779), 696 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser ML, Gehling JG. Paleontology. Old and groovy. Science. 336(6089), 1646–1647 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
Bridgham JT, Carroll SM, Thornton JW. Evolution of hormone-receptor complexity by molecular exploitation. Science. 312(5770), 97–101 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu Y, Hu W, Murakawa Y, et al. Cold-induced RNA-binding proteins regulate circadian gene expression by controlling alternative polyadenylation. Sci. Rep. 3, 2054 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dixon B, Uddameri V. GIS and Geocomputation for Water Resource Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Xu Y, Xu D, Liang J, editors. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling: Volume 2: Structure Prediction. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gibson B, Perentesis J, Alonzo TA, Kaspers GJL. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia. In: Childhood Leukemia: A Practical Handbook. Reaman GH, Smith FO (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 121–160 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management.

Blog post
Fang J. Scientists Measure Rare Black Hole 400x The Size Of Our Sun [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB’s Dashboard Has Increased Transparency and Oversight, but Improvements Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Volle M. Exploring the relationship of meetings to organizational culture and values. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Reject Suit on Federal Money for Faith-Based Office. New York Times, A18 (2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management
AbbreviationPain Manag.
ISSN (print)1758-1869
ISSN (online)1758-1877

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