How to format your references using the Pain Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx J. ALZHEIMER’S CONGRESS: Drug Shows Promise for Advanced Disease. Science. 289(5478), 375b–7b (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehner N, Howk JC. A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way. Science. 334(6058), 955–958 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
Touboul M, Puchtel IS, Walker RJ. Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon. Nature. 520(7548), 530–533 (2015).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Searle IR, Men AE, Laniya TS, et al. Long-distance signaling in nodulation directed by a CLAVATA1-like receptor kinase. Science. 299(5603), 109–112 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gwynne A. Guide to Building Control. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Díez Muiño R, Busnengo HF, editors. Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions: Atomic-level Understanding of Scattering Processes at Surfaces. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Henkel M, Pleimling M. Local Scale-invariance II: z =/ 2. In: Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions: Volume 2: Ageing and Dynamical Scaling Far from Equilibrium. Pleimling M (Ed.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 291–336 (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain Management.

Blog post
Andrew E. Early Trials for Next-Generation Artificial Skin Are a Success [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Advanced Technology Program’s Indirect Cost Rates and Program Evaluation Status. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Urquidi AJ. Condolences to all of you: Late eulogies of a half-complacent birthday boy. (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Gently, Neighbors Want Statue to Find a Home. New York Times, 144 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain Management
AbbreviationPain Manag.
ISSN (print)1758-1869
ISSN (online)1758-1877

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