How to format your references using the Vocations and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vocations and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mellars, P. (2006). Going east: new genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5788), 796–800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Channell, R., & Lomolino, M. V. (2000). Dynamic biogeography and conservation of endangered species. Nature, 403(6765), 84–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mills, C. E., Robins, J. M., & Lipsitch, M. (2004). Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. Nature, 432(7019), 904–906.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Loya, W. M., Pregitzer, K. S., Karberg, N. J., King, J. S., & Giardina, C. P. (2003). Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels. Nature, 425(6959), 705–707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell, J. (2011). Index of Medical Imaging. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Akhmet, M. (2014). Neural Networks with Discontinuous/Impact Activations. (E. Yılmaz, Ed.) (Vol. 9). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schulz, F. R. (2016). Word of Mouth Impulses Boost Wines of Germany: A Case Study. In G. Szolnoki, L. Thach, & D. Kolb (Eds.), Successful Social Media and Ecommerce Strategies in the Wine Industry (pp. 55–73). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vocations and Learning.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, August 15). Kenny The White Tiger Reveals The Price of Inbreeding. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). SSA Data Communications Contracts With Paradyne Corporation Demonstrate the Need for Improved Management Controls (No. IMTEC-84-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denz, T. A. (2012). Performance Evaluation of a Magnetically Enhanced Micro-Cathode Vacuum Arc Thruster (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017, January 27). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, p. MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mellars 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Channell and Lomolino 2000; Mellars 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Channell and Lomolino 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Loya et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleVocations and Learning
AbbreviationVocat. Learn.
ISSN (print)1874-785X
ISSN (online)1874-7868

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