How to format your references using the Vocations and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vocations and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parisi, G. (2005). Brownian motion. Nature, 433(7023), 221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Osborn, T. J., & Briffa, K. R. (2006). The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5762), 841–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osborne, I., Lavine, M., & Coontz, R. (2010). Materials for electronics. Looking beyond silicon. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5973), 1595.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gozlan, R. E., St-Hilaire, S., Feist, S. W., Martin, P., & Kent, M. L. (2005). Biodiversity: disease threat to European fish. Nature, 435(7045), 1046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dujmović, D., Androić, B., & Lukačević, I. (2014). Composite Structures According to Eurocode 4. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Laws, D. R., & O’Donohue, W. (Eds.). (2016). Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Inderbitzin, M., Walraven, T., & Anderson, J. (2016). Leading by Example: Ways That Prisoners Give Back to Their Communities. In L. S. Abrams, E. Hughes, M. Inderbitzin, & R. Meek (Eds.), The Voluntary Sector in Prisons: Encouraging Personal and Institutional Change (pp. 85–114). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vocations and Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 6). Could There be Life on the Philae Comet? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened (No. RCED-99-114). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkerson, K. (2010). A comprehensive educational program for male and female teen parents: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, October 4). In the Motor City, Success on the Field and Hope Off It. New York Times, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parisi 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Osborn and Briffa 2006; Parisi 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Osborn and Briffa 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gozlan et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleVocations and Learning
AbbreviationVocat. Learn.
ISSN (print)1874-785X
ISSN (online)1874-7868

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