How to format your references using the Vocations and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vocations and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rodbell, D. T. (2012). Climate change. Marching in near lock-step. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6068), 548–549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, D. H., & Ouellette, N. T. (2013). Emergent dynamics of laboratory insect swarms. Scientific reports, 3, 1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Serganov, A., Huang, L., & Patel, D. J. (2008). Structural insights into amino acid binding and gene control by a lysine riboswitch. Nature, 455(7217), 1263–1267.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dong, M., Kathiresan, V., Fenwick, M. K., Torelli, A. T., Zhang, Y., Caranto, J. D., et al. (2018). Organometallic and radical intermediates reveal mechanism of diphthamide biosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6381), 1247–1250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaszeta, D. (2012). CBRN and Hazmat Incidents at Major Public Events. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Younos, T., & Grady, C. A. (Eds.). (2014). Potable Water: Emerging Global Problems and Solutions (Vol. 30). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Karl, H. W., Tick, H., & Sasaki, K. A. (2016). Non-pharmacologic Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Entrapment. In A. M. Trescot (Ed.), Peripheral Nerve Entrapments: Clinical Diagnosis and Management (pp. 27–34). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vocations and Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 31). The Rate Of Deforestation In Cambodia is Alarming. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1964). Comments on NASA’s Expenditure of Appropriated Funds for Parking Spaces (No. B-155372-O.M.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, D. (2014). Teaching with the End in Mind: A Teacher’s Life History as a Legacy of Educational Leaders (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. (2016, October 19). Elevating His Game as Art Connoisseur. New York Times, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rodbell 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kelley and Ouellette 2013; Rodbell 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelley and Ouellette 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleVocations and Learning
AbbreviationVocat. Learn.
ISSN (print)1874-785X
ISSN (online)1874-7868

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