How to format your references using the Vocations and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vocations and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood, S. N. (2010). Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems. Nature, 466(7310), 1102–1104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gombosi, T. I., & Hansen, K. C. (2005). Saturn’s variable magnetosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5713), 1224–1226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, I., Zuber, M. T., & Schrag, D. P. (2007). A sulfur dioxide climate feedback on early Mars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5858), 1903–1907.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ortega-Esteban, A., Pérez-Berná, A. J., Menéndez-Conejero, R., Flint, S. J., San Martín, C., & de Pablo, P. J. (2013). Monitoring dynamics of human adenovirus disassembly induced by mechanical fatigue. Scientific reports, 3, 1434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux, É. (2008). Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bars, F. L., & Jaulin, L. (Eds.). (2014). Robotic Sailing 2013: Proceedings of the 6th International Robotic Sailing Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kifer, M., & Smolka, S. A. (2007). Memory: Virtual Memory Management. In S. A. Smolka (Ed.), Introduction to Operating System Design and Implementation: The OSP 2 Approach (pp. 75–101). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vocations and Learning.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 21). The Bizarre Life Of The Vampire Squid From Hell. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Job Corps: High Costs and Mixed Results Raise Questions About Program’s Effectiveness (No. HEHS-95-180). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koh, S. A. (2010). A comparison of treatment integrity assessment methods for behavioral intervention (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M. (2017, May 17). Win for Voting Rights Advocates, but Battles Are Ahead. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wood 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gombosi and Hansen 2005; Wood 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gombosi and Hansen 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ortega-Esteban et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVocations and Learning
AbbreviationVocat. Learn.
ISSN (print)1874-785X
ISSN (online)1874-7868

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