How to format your references using the Pain and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Clayton J. RNA interference: the silent treatment. Nature. 2004;431:599–605.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schneider RA, Helms JA. The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science. 2003;299:565–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Soukoulis CM, Linden S, Wegener M. Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths. Science. 2007;315:47–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Long S, Perniola L, Cagli C, Buckley J, Lian X, Miranda E, et al. Voltage and power-controlled regimes in the progressive unipolar RESET transition of HfO₂-based RRAM. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2929.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Akivis MA, Goldberg VV. Conformal Differential Geometry and Its Generalizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
1. Fiadeiro JL, Inverardi P, editors. Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering: 11th International Conference, FASE 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Heun MK, Carbajales-Dale M, Haney BR. Stocks and Flows of Embodied Energy. In: Carbajales-Dale M, Haney BR, editors. Beyond GDP: National Accounting in the Age of Resource Depletion. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 91–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Pioneers Of Quantum Computing Are Among The 2015 Eureka Prize Winners [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/pioneers-quantum-computing-are-among-2015-eureka-prize-winners/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 May. Report No.: PEMD-91-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Golf F. Search for New Physics in a Final State with Same-Sign Dileptons, Jets, and Missing Transverse Energy at 7 TeV Center of Mass Energy [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Fausset R, Robles F, Eligon J. Online Footprint Builds Portrait of Gunman’s Life. New York Times. 2016 Jul 18;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain and Therapy
AbbreviationPain Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8237
ISSN (online)2193-651X
Scope

Other styles