How to format your references using the Pain and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Powell K. Save now, don’t pay later. Nature. 2005;433:336–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Waterhouse PM, Hellens RP. Plant biology: Coding in non-coding RNAs. Nature. 2015;520:41–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Suzuki H, Imura J-I, Aihara K. Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1127.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McClintock WE, Vervack RJ Jr, Bradley ET, Killen RM, Mouawad N, Sprague AL, et al. MESSENGER observations of Mercury’s exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents. Science. 2009;324:610–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bertolini L, Elsener B, Pedeferri P, Polder RB. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
1. Machado C, editor. International Human Resources Management: Challenges and Changes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cowan G, Smith P, Christofilogiannis P. Fish Vaccines: The Regulatory Process and Requirements from the Laboratory Bench to a Final Commercial Product, Including Field Trials. In: Adams A, editor. Fish Vaccines. Basel: Springer; 2016. p. 105–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Solar Plane Is About To Embark On A Round-The-World Trip [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Indian Affairs: Key Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Health at Indian School Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Mar. Report No.: GAO-16-391T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wasserman MM. Psychological Symptoms, Family Functioning, and Religious Coping in Second- and Third-Generation Holocaust Survivors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. Building a Business, Quarter by Quarter. New York Times. 1998 May 17;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain and Therapy
AbbreviationPain Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8237
ISSN (online)2193-651X

Other styles