How to format your references using the Pain and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pain and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Raguso RA. Plant science. The “invisible hand” of floral chemistry. Science. 2008;321:1163–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. O’Neill LAJ, Hardie DG. Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature. 2013;493:346–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Della Negra M, Jenni P, Virdee TS. Journey in the search for the Higgs boson: the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Science. 2012;338:1560–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. de Vries W, Solberg S, Dobbertin M, Sterba H, Laubhahn D, Reinds GJ, et al. Ecologically implausible carbon response? Nature. 2008;451:E1-3; discussion E3-4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Padgett S. Profiling the Fraudster. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
1. Nelson T, Winawer H, editors. Critical Topics in Family Therapy: AFTA Monograph Series Highlights. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Doerffer P, Hirsch C, Dussauge J-P, Babinsky H, Barakos GN. Nozzle Forced Shock Oscillations with Wall Bump (Reynald Bur). In: Hirsch C, Dussauge J-P, Babinsky H, Barakos GN, editors. Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 135–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pain and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Monday’s Medical Myth: You Can’t Mix Antibiotics With Alcohol [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/monday-s-medical-myth-you-can-t-mix-antibiotics-alcohol/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1161T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garcia DM. Cutting a thorn: The cleansing function of female genital cutting [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper M, Walsh MW. MOUNTING DEBTS BY STATES STOKE FEARS OF CRISIS. New York Times. 2010 Dec 5;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePain and Therapy
AbbreviationPain Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8237
ISSN (online)2193-651X
Scope

Other styles