How to format your references using the Materials Science for Energy Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Science for Energy Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Bender, Epidemiology: The dominant malignancy, Nature. 513 (2014) S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.M. Ghose, J.H.R. Maunsell, Attentional modulation in visual cortex depends on task timing, Nature. 419 (2002) 616–620.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Pan, Y. Xiong, T.A. Steitz, How the CCA-adding enzyme selects adenine over cytosine at position 76 of tRNA, Science. 330 (2010) 937–940.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Duggen, K. Hoernle, P. van den Bogaard, L. Rüpke, J.P. Morgan, Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis, Nature. 422 (2003) 602–606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.D. McAulay, Military Laser Technology for Defense, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
F. Wang, P. Yan, K. Suzuki, D. Shen, eds., Machine Learning in Medical Imaging: First International Workshop, MLMI 2010, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2010, Beijing, China, September 20, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Christaller, Artificial Intelligence Is Engineering Intelligence – Why Should We Care About Natural Intelligence?, in: J. Hertzberg, M. Beetz, R. Englert (Eds.), KI 2007: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 30th Annual German Conference on AI, KI 2007, Osnabrück, Germany, September 10-13, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 43–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Science for Energy Technologies.

Blog post
T. Hale, Australian Police Announce Hoverboard Unit For Back To The Future Day, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FCC: Policies and Rules Concerning Children’s Television Programming--Revision of Programming Policies for Television Broadcast Stations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.L. De la Rosa-Carrillo, On the language of Internet Memes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. Kepner, A Racist Gesture Results in a Delayed Punishment, New York Times. (2017) SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Science for Energy Technologies
ISSN (print)2589-2991

Other styles