How to format your references using the Materials Science for Energy Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Science for Energy Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Bickford, Animal behavior: male parenting of New Guinea froglets, Nature. 418 (2002) 601–602.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Schwämmle, H.J. Herrmann, Geomorphology: solitary wave behaviour of sand dunes, Nature. 426 (2003) 619–620.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Mendoza, H.J. Herrmann, S. Succi, Hydrodynamic model for conductivity in graphene, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1052.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Naruse, S.-J. Kim, M. Aono, H. Hori, M. Ohtsu, Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.C. Dickeson, Prioritizing Academic Programs and Services, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2010.
An edited book
R. Hähnle, J. Knoop, T. Margaria, D. Schreiner, B. Steffen, eds., Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: International Workshops, SARS 2011 and MLSC 2011, Held Under the Auspices of ISoLA 2011 in Vienna, Austria, October 17-18, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Gertz, D. McGlashan, Consumer-Centric Programmatic Advertising, in: O. Busch (Ed.), Programmatic Advertising: The Successful Transformation to Automated, Data-Driven Marketing in Real-Time, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Science for Energy Technologies.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Molten lava meets a can of Coke, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Debarment for Violation of Davis-Bacon Act, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Reehal, Designing Low Power and High Performance Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures for Nanometer SoCs, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, Spokesman Spins for Audience of One, New York Times. (2017) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Science for Energy Technologies
ISSN (print)2589-2991

Other styles