How to format your references using the Materials Science for Energy Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Science for Energy Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.N. Edwards, Beyond the ivory tower. “A vast machine”: standards as social technology, Science. 304 (2004) 827–828.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.R. Ridderinkhof, W.P.M. van den Wildenberg, Neuroscience. Adaptive coding, Science. 307 (2005) 1059–1060.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.N. Winn, D. Rusin, C.S. Kochanek, The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar, Nature. 427 (2004) 613–615.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I.G. Alsos, P.B. Eidesen, D. Ehrich, I. Skrede, K. Westergaard, G.H. Jacobsen, J.Y. Landvik, P. Taberlet, C. Brochmann, Frequent long-distance plant colonization in the changing Arctic, Science. 316 (2007) 1606–1609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.R. Howe, Marriages & Families in the 21st Century, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
C. Kreiner, R.V. O’Connor, A. Poth, R. Messnarz, eds., Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 23rd European Conference, EuroSPI 2016, Graz, Austria, September 14-16, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Maji, S. Paul, f-Information Measures for Selection of Discriminative Genes from Microarray Data, in: S. Paul (Ed.), Scalable Pattern Recognition Algorithms: Applications in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 131–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Science for Energy Technologies.

Blog post
J. Davis, Our Ancestors Probably Got Less Sleep Than We Do, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Glassett Farrelly, Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
W. Hu, J.E. Singer, Drug and Bribery Investigation Brings New Scrutiny to Queens Karaoke Clubs, New York Times. (2015) A36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Science for Energy Technologies
ISSN (print)2589-2991

Other styles