How to format your references using the Otolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowler PJ. Darwin’s Originality. Science 2009;323:223–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider DS, Chambers MC. Microbiology. Rogue insect immunity. Science 2008;322:1199–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell G, Hey T, Szalay A. Computer science. Beyond the data deluge. Science 2009;323:1297–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Venail PA, MacLean RC, Bouvier T, Brockhurst MA, Hochberg ME, Mouquet N. Diversity and productivity peak at intermediate dispersal rate in evolving metacommunities. Nature 2008;452:210–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis M, McKimm J, Forrest K. How to Assess Doctors and Health Professionals. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Velázquez E, Rodríguez-Barrueco C, editors. First International Meeting on Microbial Phosphate Solubilization. vol. 102. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
van de Kaa DJ. On the Societal Impact of Modern Contraception. In: Beets G, Schippers J, te Velde ER, editors. The Future of Motherhood in Western Societies: Late Fertility and its Consequences, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011, p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew D. Gravitational Waves Found Again: Here’s How They Could Whisper The Universe’s Secrets. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Office of Telecommunications Policy’s Contract for a Publication on Intercepting Electronic Communications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wead MO. Fear and Doubt. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly AL. The Struggle to Move Beyond ‘Why Me?’ New York Times 2007:F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-5488

Other styles