How to format your references using the Otolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mank JE. Journal club. An evolutionary biologist compares genomic complexity to modern art. Nature 2009;461:701.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller LH, Greenwood B. Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science 2002;298:121–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buckley SA, Clark KA, Evershed RP. Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies. Nature 2004;431:294–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
DiVincenzo DP, Bacon D, Kempe J, Burkard G, Whaley KB. Universal quantum computation with the exchange interaction. Nature 2000;408:339–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Söchting I. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2014.
An edited book
Bogomolov F, Tschinkel Y, editors. Geometric Methods in Algebra and Number Theory. vol. 235. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Böcker S, Baumbach J. Cluster Editing. In: Bonizzoni P, Brattka V, Löwe B, editors. The Nature of Computation. Logic, Algorithms, Applications: 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, Milan, Italy, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers Detect Photons Without Inflicting Damage. IFLScience 2013. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Weather: Agencies Need to Improve Performance Measurement and Fully Address Key Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blalock JM. The Links at St Andrews, Scotland A phenomenological hermeneutic exploration of golf’s primordial place. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M. In Search of the Right Type of Juror, When a Police Officer Is on Trial. New York Times 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-5488

Other styles