How to format your references using the Otolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M. RNA interference: From tools to therapies. Nature 2010;464:1225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinnakota RK, Genov DA. Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode. Sci Rep 2014;4:4899.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hurtley S, Ash C, Roberts L. Tuberculosis & malaria. Landscapes of infection. Introduction. Science 2010;328:841.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Freeman C, Fenner N, Ostle NJ, Kang H, Dowrick DJ, Reynolds B, et al. Export of dissolved organic carbon from peatlands under elevated carbon dioxide levels. Nature 2004;430:195–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Britton M. YouthNation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Boca P, Bowen JP, Siddiqi J, editors. Formal Methods: State of the Art and New Directions. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Robinson B. The Welfare and Education of Left-Behind Children in Western China. In: Lee JC-K, Yu Z, Huang X, Law EH-F, editors. Educational Development in Western China: Towards Quality and Equity, Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016, p. 97–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
Taub B. Why Do We Have Nightmares? IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Perchlorate: Occurrence Is Widespread but at Varying Levels; Federal Agencies Have Taken Some Actions to Respond to and Lessen Releases. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo SX. Theoretical models of olfactory discrimination in Drosophila. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Baker AL, Southall A. Attempted Murder Charge in Bronx Shooting of Boy on His 5th Birthday. New York Times 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-5488

Other styles