How to format your references using the Otolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Baselga J. Targeting tyrosine kinases in cancer: the second wave. Science 2006;312:1175–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Mulligan SJ, MacVicar BA. Calcium transients in astrocyte endfeet cause cerebrovascular constrictions. Nature 2004;431:195–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Khan P, Jain H, Adarsh KV. Role of Ge:As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-Ge(x)As(35-x)Se65 thin films. Sci Rep 2014;4:4029.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Reinhardt D, Pesce E-R, Stieger P, Mandel T, Baltensperger K, Bennett M, et al. Regulation of phyllotaxis by polar auxin transport. Nature 2003;426:255–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Hooker J. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
[1]
Abielmona R, Falcon R, Zincir-Heywood N, Abbass HA, editors. Recent Advances in Computational Intelligence in Defense and Security. vol. 621. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Bellari A. Advent of Internet 2.0 and Its Implications on the Semiconductor Industry. In: Chakravarthi VS, Shirur YJM, Prasad R, editors. Proceedings of International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking (VCASAN-2013), New Delhi: Springer India; 2013, p. 25–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Signs Of Comets Detected Around A Sun-Like Star. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroads: Industry Health Has Improved, but Concerns about Competition and Capacity Should Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Simmons-Johnson N. The path to graduation: A model interactive Web site design supporting doctoral students. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Williams J. Parade’s End. New York Times 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-5488
Scope

Other styles