How to format your references using the Otolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Otolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen J. Means to an end. Cities, states, and provinces are gearing up to halt their AIDS epidemics—though the definition of success varies. Science 2015;349:226–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Latch DE, McNeill K. Microheterogeneity of singlet oxygen distributions in irradiated humic acid solutions. Science 2006;311:1743–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackermann M, Stearns SC, Jenal U. Senescence in a bacterium with asymmetric division. Science 2003;300:1920.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou WH, Zhang CG, Li YG, Zeng Z. Creeping motion of self interstitial atom clusters in tungsten. Sci Rep 2014;4:5096.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rebonato R. Volatility and Correlation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Honkela T, Duch W, Girolami M, Kaski S, editors. Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning – ICANN 2011: 21st International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, Espoo, Finland, June 14-17, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. vol. 6792. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciuprina G, Villena JF, Ioan D, Ilievski Z, Kula S, ter Maten EJW, et al. Parameterized Model Order Reduction. In: Günther M, editor. Coupled Multiscale Simulation and Optimization in Nanoelectronics, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015, p. 267–359.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Otolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Biker Was IMPALED Through The Neck By A Tree Branch, And Just Cycled To The Nearest Hospital! IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna SG. Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The role of language and dialect contact in the formation of a new variety of U.S. Spanish. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruckelshaus WD, Reilly WK. Why Obama Is Right on Clean Energy. New York Times 2016:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOtolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-5488

Other styles