How to format your references using the Osteoporosis International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cluver L (2011) Children of the AIDS pandemic. Nature 474:27–29
A journal article with 2 authors
Leibfarth FA, Hawker CJ (2011) Chemistry. Mechanically throwing a reaction into reverse. Science 333:1582–1583
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabre M, Cone R, Saibil H (2003) Biophysics: is rhodopsin dimeric in native retinal rods? Nature 426:30–1; discussion 31
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Panganiban B, Qiao B, Jiang T, et al (2018) Random heteropolymers preserve protein function in foreign environments. Science 359:1239–1243

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tannenbaum LV (2013) Alternative Ecological Risk Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
McCool SF, Bosak K (2016) Reframing Sustainable Tourism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Lerner N (2008) Some Facts About the Wick Calculus. In: Helffer B, Lamoureux MP, Lerner N, et al (eds) Pseudo-Differential Operators: Quantization and Signals. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 135–174

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis International.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) New Laser Could Generate Sun’s Core Temperature Instantaneously. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharma SP (2017) U.S. Government Program Managers’ Competencies to Manage Satellite Acquisition Programs. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2010) When the Pie Line Grows Long. New York Times NJ15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis International
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Int.
ISSN (print)0937-941X
ISSN (online)1433-2965
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles