How to format your references using the Osteoporosis International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fenton MB (2011) Ecology. The world through a bat’s ear. Science 333:528–529
A journal article with 2 authors
Hewak D, Gholipour B (2012) Materials science. Primed to remember. Science 336:1515–1516
A journal article with 3 authors
De Marco García NV, Karayannis T, Fishell G (2011) Neuronal activity is required for the development of specific cortical interneuron subtypes. Nature 472:351–355
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kumar A, Arruda TM, Tselev A, et al (2013) Nanometer-scale mapping of irreversible electrochemical nucleation processes on solid Li-ion electrolytes. Sci Rep 3:1621

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiman J (2012) As Free and as Just as Possible. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Choi T-M (2012) Risk Analysis in Stochastic Supply Chains: A Mean-Risk Approach. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Hale MR (2016) Apostles of Freedom: Pro-French American Democrats and Thomas Paine as Religious Crusaders. In: Cleary S, Stabell IL (eds) New Directions in Thomas Paine Studies. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 69–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis International.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Newly Discovered, Unnamed Deep Sea Creatures Found Off The Coast Of Puerto Rico. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Railroad Safety: Engineer Work Shift Length and Schedule Variability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez SN (2010) Analysis of the impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s children: A report card on the CalWORKs program. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by (2009) Moscow Hosts Contemporary Art Show. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis International
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Int.
ISSN (print)0937-941X
ISSN (online)1433-2965
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles