How to format your references using the Osteoporosis International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kiehl J (2011) Climate change. Lessons from Earth’s past. Science 331:158–159
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Zahn LM, Travis J (2013) Cancer genomics. A medical renaissance? Introduction. Science 339:1539
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Esper J, Cook ER, Schweingruber FH (2002) Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science 295:2250–2253
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Peccianti M, Conti C, Assanto G, et al (2004) Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals. Nature 432:733–737

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Nyce DS (2016) Position Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Wee Sit E (2015) Sensors and Instrumentation, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 33rd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kümmerer B (2006) Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics. In: Schüermann M, Franz U (eds) Quantum Independent Increment Processes II: Structure of Quantum Levy Processes, Classical Probability, and Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 259–330

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis International.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2017) Scientists Launch Search For The Supposedly Extinct Tasmanian Tiger. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2005) Aviation Security: Better Planning Needed to Optimize Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dhantole G (2014) Evaluating provision of healthcare system in the U.S. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Cooper M (2017) Pearl Theater to Close. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis International
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Int.
ISSN (print)0937-941X
ISSN (online)1433-2965
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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