How to format your references using the Osteoporosis International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoporosis International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kleiner K (2006) Assault on batteries. Nature 441:1046–1047
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fitch WT, Hauser MD (2004) Computational constraints on syntactic processing in a nonhuman primate. Science 303:377–380
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Rich T, Allen RL, Wyllie AH (2000) Defying death after DNA damage. Nature 407:777–783
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Ma T-B, Wang L-F, Hu Y-Z, et al (2014) A shear localization mechanism for lubricity of amorphous carbon materials. Sci Rep 4:3662

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wiens JA (2016) Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Mattens F (2008) Meaning and Language: Phenomenological Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Poma L (2013) L’informazione e le reti sociali complesse. In: Laszlo E, Biava PM (eds) Il senso ritrovato. Springer, Milano, pp 89–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoporosis International.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D (2016) Pain Is More Than A Physical Process – Now A Study In Mice Suggests It May Even Be Socially Transferable. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/pain-is-more-than-a-physical-process-now-a-study-in-mice-suggests-it-may-even-be-socially-transferable/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1997) FCC: Ka-Band Satellite Application and Licensing Procedure. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Benson MK (2010) Joint -service integration: An organizational culture study of the United States Department of Defense voluntary education system. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L (2007) A Virus Endangers Trout at Big Hatchery. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoporosis International
AbbreviationOsteoporos. Int.
ISSN (print)0937-941X
ISSN (online)1433-2965
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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