How to format your references using the Osteoarthritis and Cartilage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hochstrasser M. Origin and function of ubiquitin-like proteins. Nature. 2009;458(7237):422-429.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Peppe DJ, Royer DL. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. Can climate feel the pressure? Science. 2015;348(6240):1210-1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Good MC, Zalatan JG, Lim WA. Scaffold proteins: hubs for controlling the flow of cellular information. Science. 2011;332(6030):680-686.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Yoon JW, Lee JH, Song SH, Magnusson R. Unified theory of surface-plasmonic enhancement and extinction of light transmission through metallic nanoslit arrays. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kelly VA. ADDICTION in the Family: What Every Counselor Needs to Know. Alexandria, USA: American Counseling Association; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Patterson J. Solid-State Physics: Introduction to the Theory. (Bailey B, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dash T, Nayak SK, Behera HS. Hybrid Gravitational Search and Particle Swarm Based Fuzzy MLP for Medical Data Classification. In: Jain LC, Behera HS, Mandal JK, Mohapatra DP, eds. Computational Intelligence in Data Mining - Volume 1: Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, 20-21 December 2014. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015:35-43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Swinging Between Extremes In Giving Scientific Credit Where Credit Is Due. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/swinging-between-extremes-giving-scientific-credit-where-credit-due/. Published October 15, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Leadership and Accountability Needed to Strengthen Federal Protection and Enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Haws SW. A multilevel study of schools’ influences on adolescent substance use. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich JR. A Sequel of Sorts, Made to Challenge Singers. New York Times. June 23, 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
AbbreviationOsteoarthritis Cartilage
ISSN (print)1063-4584
ISSN (online)1522-9653
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rheumatology

Other styles