How to format your references using the Osteoarthritis and Cartilage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White TD. Retrospective. Phillip V. Tobias (1925-2012). Science. 2012;337(6093):423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toggweiler JR, Russell J. Ocean circulation in a warming climate. Nature. 2008;451(7176):286-288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Messer H, Zinevich A, Alpert P. Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks. Science. 2006;312(5774):713.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nielsen SB, Thomsen E, Hansen DL, Clausen OR. Plate-wide stress relaxation explains European Palaeocene basin inversions. Nature. 2005;435(7039):195-198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan NH, Wong HY. Simulation Techniques in Financial Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Demidenko GV, Vaskevich VL, eds. Selected Works of S.L. Sobolev: Volume I: Mathematical Physics, Computational Mathematics, and Cubature Formulas. Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Okitsu K. Sonochemical Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles. In: Ashokkumar M, ed. Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems. Springer Netherlands; 2011:131-150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage.

Blog post
Fang J. Watch What Happens When You Stick Your Hand Into “Hot Ice.” IFLScience. Published July 15, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: Airline Alliances Produce Benefits, but Effect on Competition Is Uncertain. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koval BC. Undergraduate Students in Paraprofessional Roles and Their Use of Online Social Networks. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wong E. Can China Lead Way on Climate Change? Domestic Divide Could Make It Difficult. New York Times. June 2, 2017:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
AbbreviationOsteoarthritis Cartilage
ISSN (print)1063-4584
ISSN (online)1522-9653
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles