How to format your references using the Osteoarthritis and Cartilage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Murphy KM. Comment on “Activation of β-catenin in dendritic cells regulates immunity versus tolerance in the intestine.” Science. 2011;333(6041):405; author reply 405.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ron D, Ito K. Cell biology. A translational pause to localize. Science. 2011;331(6017):543-544.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Atallah BV, Scanziani M, Carandini M. Atallah et al. reply. Nature. 2014;508(7494):E3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Schumacher MA, Rivard AF, Bächinger HP, Adelman JP. Structure of the gating domain of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel complexed with Ca2+/calmodulin. Nature. 2001;410(6832):1120-1124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Anderson JB. Bandwidth Efficient Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Natale A, Al-Ahmad A, Wang PJ, DiMarco J, eds. Cardiac Electrophysiology: Clinical Case Review. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Torres AM, Price WS. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In: Aldrich-Wright J, ed. Metallointercalators: Synthesis and Techniques to Probe Their Interactions with Biomolecules. Springer; 2011:129-141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. New Hepatitis C Vaccine Shows Promise In Human Trials. IFLScience. Published November 6, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/new-hepatitis-c-vaccine-shows-promise-human-trials/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Intermodal Freight Transportation: Projects and Planning Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Krauss WF. The role of a middle management team during a directed restructuring: A case study of a government agency using Stones’ strong structuration. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Salms-Moss S. Absolutely Final Delivery. New York Times. January 7, 2016:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
AbbreviationOsteoarthritis Cartilage
ISSN (print)1063-4584
ISSN (online)1522-9653
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rheumatology

Other styles