How to format your references using the Osteoarthritis and Cartilage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. German Greens go cold on nuclear fusion. Nature. 2000;405(6783):107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver P, Johnson D. Biodiversity: Think big for marine conservation. Nature. 2012;483(7390):399.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carslaw KS, Harrison RG, Kirkby J. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate. Science. 2002;298(5599):1732-1737.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garcia V, Bibes M, Bocher L, et al. Ferroelectric control of spin polarization. Science. 2010;327(5969):1106-1110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen CJ. Physics of Solar Energy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Johnson C, Ciesielski V, Correia J, Machado P, eds. Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design: 5th International Conference, EvoMUSART 2016, Porto, Portugal, March 30 -- April 1, 2016, Proceedings. Vol 9596. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Karande S. Quality of Life in Children Diagnosed with Specific Learning Disability or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Hollar D, ed. Handbook of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Springer; 2012:73-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Osteoarthritis and Cartilage.

Blog post
Hale T. Company That Upped Drug Price By 5,000% Reports $14.6 Million Loss In Three Months. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Reauthorization: Opportunity Exists to Address Safety, Capacity, and Efficiency Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casale N. Generational Preferences in Marketing Medium Selections of Animal Adoptions in Nonprofit Organizations: A Correlational Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. A Year of New Heights For the Dow, Led by Boeing. New York Times. August 10, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
AbbreviationOsteoarthritis Cartilage
ISSN (print)1063-4584
ISSN (online)1522-9653
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles