How to format your references using the Oral Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2004). Looking for a fast track. Nature 431: 381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fier PS, Hartwig JF (2013). Selective C-H fluorination of pyridines and diazines inspired by a classic amination reaction. Science 342: 956–960.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feurer T, Vaughan JC, Nelson KA (2003). Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves. Science 299: 374–377.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Reich PB, Hobbie SE, Lee T, et al (2006). Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2. Nature 440: 922–925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen JS, Fiedler-Kelly J (2014). Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Treschev D (2010). Introduction to the Perturbation Theory of Hamiltonian Systems (O Zubelevich, Ed.). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki Y, Suzuki R (2014). Investigation of Massage by Using Tactile Score. In: Suzuki R, ed. Tactile Score: A Knowledge Media for Tactile Sense. Springer Japan: Tokyo, pp. 27–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Diseases.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017). The Amazon Rainforest Is Dominated By Domesticated Trees. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010). Commercial Aviation: Better Information about Airline-Imposed Fees and the Refundability of Government-Imposed Taxes and Fees Could Benefit Consumers. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woo C (2008). Cross-Cultural Encounter and the Novel: Nation, Identity, and Genre in Nineteenth-Century British Literature. Doctoral dissertation Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Green LV (2006). Beds of State. New York Times: 14WC15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Fier and Hartwig, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fier and Hartwig, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Reich et al, 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Diseases
AbbreviationOral Dis.
ISSN (print)1354-523X
ISSN (online)1601-0825
General Dentistry

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