How to format your references using the Oral Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sumper M (2002). A phase separation model for the nanopatterning of diatom biosilica. Science 295: 2430–2433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becks L, Agrawal AF (2010). Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Nature 468: 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okabe Y, Sano T, Nagata S (2009). Regulation of the innate immune response by threonine-phosphatase of Eyes absent. Nature 460: 520–524.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lello J, Boag B, Fenton A, Stevenson IR, Hudson PJ (2004). Competition and mutualism among the gut helminths of a mammalian host. Nature 428: 840–844.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Escarpa A, González MC, López MÁ (2015). Agricultural and Food Electroanalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Konstantinou IK (Ed.) (2006). Antifouling Paint Biocides. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Capasso V, Morale D (2013). A Multiscale Approach Leading to Hybrid Mathematical Models for Angiogenesis: The Role of Randomness. In: Ledzewicz U, Schättler H, Friedman A, Kashdan E, eds. Mathematical Methods and Models in Biomedicine. Springer: New York, NY, pp. 87–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). ‘T-Rex Of The Sea’ Gave Birth In The Open Ocean. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Transportation Infrastructure: Alternative Financing Mechanisms for Surface Transportation. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lake AD (2013). Hepatic stress response mechanisms in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Doctoral dissertation University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steinberger M (2013). The Afterlife Of The Best Tennis Player In The World. New York Times: MM31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sumper, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sumper, 2002; Becks and Agrawal, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Becks and Agrawal, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lello et al, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Diseases
AbbreviationOral Dis.
ISSN (print)1354-523X
ISSN (online)1601-0825
General Dentistry

Other styles