How to format your references using the Oral Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gursky H (2002). X-ray astronomy-40 years on. Science 297: 1485–1486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartl FU, Hayer-Hartl M (2002). Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein. Science 295: 1852–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agulhon C, Fiacco TA, McCarthy KD (2010). Hippocampal short- and long-term plasticity are not modulated by astrocyte Ca2+ signaling. Science 327: 1250–1254.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miller SA, Collettini C, Chiaraluce L, Cocco M, Barchi M, Kaus BJP (2004). Aftershocks driven by a high-pressure CO2 source at depth. Nature 427: 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk M, Broersen J, Schurink G (2014). Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ernst E (Ed.) (2007). ECOOP 2007 – Object-Oriented Programming: 21st European Conference, Berlin, Germany, July 30 - August 3, 2007. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Prasad SV, Meher KK (2016). Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste: A Focus on Microbial Community Structures. In: Karthikeyan OP, Heimann K, Muthu SS, eds. Recycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals. Springer: Singapore, pp. 127–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014). New Sauropod Species Discovered in Tanzania. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Highway Projects: Survey of State Departments of Transportation (GAO-12-637SP, June 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-593. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Alawadhi F (2014). Oral History of Women Educators in Kuwait: A Comparative Model of Care Ethics Between Noddings and Al-Ghazali. Doctoral dissertation University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robertson C (2017). No Stranger to Flooding, One Town Suffers Again. New York Times: A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gursky, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hartl and Hayer-Hartl, 2002; Gursky, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hartl and Hayer-Hartl, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Diseases
AbbreviationOral Dis.
ISSN (print)1354-523X
ISSN (online)1601-0825
General Dentistry

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