How to format your references using the Oral Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oral Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone R (2011). Higher education. Crunch time for North Korea’s revolutionary new university. Science 334: 1624–1625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tan LWH, Subramaniam R (2002). Education. Science and the student entrepreneur. Science 298: 1556.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn EW, Aknin LB, Norton MI (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science 319: 1687–1688.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Karhadkar SS, Bova GS, Abdallah N, et al (2004). Hedgehog signalling in prostate regeneration, neoplasia and metastasis. Nature 431: 707–712.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mishra AR (2010). Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Davim JP (Ed.) (2015). Modern Manufacturing Engineering. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmitz RA, Daniel R, Deppenmeier U, Gottschalk G (2006). The Anaerobic Way of Life. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer K-H, Stackebrandt E, eds. The Prokaryotes: Volume 2: Ecophysiology and Biochemistry. Springer: New York, NY, pp. 86–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oral Diseases.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016). UK Artists and Scientists Launch Space Junk Awareness Project. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jensen D (2015). Functional Analysis of Calmodulin’s Calcium Dependent Inactivation of Orai1. Doctoral dissertation Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Collier; Sophia Collier is the president of the American Natural Beverage Corporation (1988). STREET SMARTS. New York Times: 674.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stone, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Tan and Subramaniam, 2002; Stone, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tan and Subramaniam, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Karhadkar et al, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOral Diseases
AbbreviationOral Dis.
ISSN (print)1354-523X
ISSN (online)1601-0825
General Dentistry

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