How to format your references using the Optimization Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Worlock, D.R.: The best and worst of times. Nature. 413, 671 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
DePaolo, D.J., Manga, M.: Geology. Deep origin of hotspots--the mantle plume model. Science. 300, 920–921 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sekiguchi, Y., Arai, K., Kohshima, S.: Sleep behaviour: sleep in continuously active dolphins. Nature. 441, E9-10; discussion E11 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Parnell, J., Boyce, A.J., Hurst, A., Davidheiser-Kroll, B., Ponicka, J.: Long term geological record of a global deep subsurface microbial habitat in sand injection complexes. Sci. Rep. 3, 1828 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frueh, B.C., Grubaugh, A.L., Elhai, J.D., Ford, J.D.: Assessment and Treatment Planning for PTSD. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey (2012)
An edited book
Schuck, P. ed: Protein Interactions: Biophysical Approaches for the Study of Complex Reversible Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Jamart, A.-C.: Chapter 3 Internet Freedom and the Constitutionalization of Internet Governance. In: Radu, R., Chenou, J.-M., and Weber, R.H. (eds.) The Evolution of Global Internet Governance: Principles and Policies in the Making. pp. 57–76. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization Letters.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: The Universe Isn’t Accelerating As Fast As We Thought


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: OMB’s Dashboard Has Increased Transparency and Oversight, but Improvements Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ciolek, R.: A Mixed Method Study on the Missouri Beginning Teachers Assistance Program and Teacher Retention in Saint Louis School Districts, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: In the Shadow of Buildings and Ozu, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization Letters
AbbreviationOptim. Lett.
ISSN (print)1862-4472
ISSN (online)1862-4480
ScopeControl and Optimization

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