How to format your references using the Optimization Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optimization Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: A decisive effort? Nature. 418, 3 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, K.R., Ellis, B.: A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science. 296, 2379–2383 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrari, G., Stornaiuolo, A., Mavilio, F.: Failure to correct murine muscular dystrophy. Nature. 411, 1014–1015 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gan, L.-Y., Zhang, Q., Zhao, Y.-J., Cheng, Y., Schwingenschlögl, U.: Order-disorder phase transitions in the two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys Mo(1-x)W(x)X₂ (X = S, Se, and Te). Sci. Rep. 4, 6691 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong, A.C.M., Hui, S.C.: Multimedia Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England (2006)
An edited book
Mason, T. ed: Forensic Psychiatry: Influences of Evil. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Ifenthaler, D., Pirnay-Dummer, P.: States and Processes of Learning Communities. Engaging Students in Meaningful Reflection and Learning. In: White, B., King, I., and Tsang, P. (eds.) Social Media Tools and Platforms in Learning Environments. pp. 81–94. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optimization Letters.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: Why We Need To Pay More Attention To Negative Clinical Trials


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Needs to Strengthen Its Strategic Planning and Oversight to Modernize Legacy Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2017)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayen, C.J.: Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Finding the Way Back to Our Animal Soul, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar, F., Sophia Chang on, Koblin, J., Nate Schweber in, Lazo, A., Connecticut, A.S. in: That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptimization Letters
AbbreviationOptim. Lett.
ISSN (print)1862-4472
ISSN (online)1862-4480
ScopeControl and Optimization

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