How to format your references using the IEEE Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Intelligent Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Gershon, “Crossing the divide between theory and practice,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6775, p. 316, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Day and J. Beamish, “Low-temperature shear modulus changes in solid 4He and connection to supersolidity,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7171, pp. 853–856, Dec. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. D. P. Johnson, P. Stopka, and S. Knights, “Sociology: The puzzle of human cooperation,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6926, pp. 911–2; discussion 912, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Stayrook, P. Jaru-Ampornpan, J. Ni, A. Hochschild, and M. Lewis, “Crystal structure of the lambda repressor and a model for pairwise cooperative operator binding,” Nature, vol. 452, no. 7190, pp. 1022–1025, Apr. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. J. Abner, The ETF Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
D. N. P. Murthy, Extended Warranties, Maintenance Service and Lease Contracts: Modeling and Analysis for Decision-Making. London: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
C. R. Hutchinson, “Manipulating Microbial Metabolites for Drug Discovery and Production,” in Natural Products: Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Medicine, L. Zhang and A. L. Demain, Eds. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2005, pp. 77–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Astronomers Catch Surprise ‘Eclipse’ Of Jupiter’s Moons,” IFLScience, Dec. 31, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA’s Requirement for a Single Solid Rocket Refurbishment and Assembly Facility at Kennedy Space Center,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-84-124, Jun. 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. L. Green, “The leadership practices of executive women of local government,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. R. Oestreich, “Brahms Wrote It for His Mother and His Friend Robert,” New York Times, p. C7, May 12, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Intelligent Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Intell. Syst.
ISSN (print)1541-1672
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications

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