How to format your references using the IEEE Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Intelligent Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Feagin, “Journal club. A coastal ecologist sees the hidden effects of hurricanes,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7262, p. 319, Sep. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Gerstner and R. Naud, “Neuroscience. How good are neuron models?,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5951, pp. 379–380, Oct. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. P. Kaloni, M. Tahir, and U. Schwingenschlögl, “Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3192, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Wang, A. W. A. Kellner, Z. Zhou, and D. de A. Campos, “Pterosaur diversity and faunal turnover in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7060, pp. 875–879, Oct. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. A. Kaltashov and S. J. Eyles, Mass Spectrometry in Biophysics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
P. Melin and O. Castillo, Eds., Soft Computing Applications in Optimization, Control, and Recognition, vol. 294. in Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, vol. 294. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Lowe and K. Kiryazov, “Utilizing Emotions in Autonomous Robots: An Enactive Approach,” in Emotion Modeling: Towards Pragmatic Computational Models of Affective Processes, T. Bosse, J. Broekens, J. Dias, and J. van der Zwaan, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 76–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Running May Boost Connectivity In Your Brain,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Department of Transportation: Experts Identified Areas for Operational Improvements without Implementing Organizational Changes,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-17-478, May 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. R. Carver, “CMO: Chief Marketing Officer or chief ‘marginalized’ officer,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Soloski, “In Two Israeli Plays, Peace Is Forever Receding,” New York Times, p. C3, Jul. 26, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Intelligent Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Intell. Syst.
ISSN (print)1541-1672
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications

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