How to format your references using the Optical Switching and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Switching and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Butler, Institutes prepare for pioneering bioinformatics work, Nature. 412 (2001) 106.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Holowka, L.A. Petitto, Left hemisphere cerebral specialization for babies while babbling, Science. 297 (2002) 1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.K.B. Bishop, R.E. Davis, J.T. Sherman, Robotic observations of dust storm enhancement of carbon biomass in the North Pacific, Science. 298 (2002) 817–821.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Xu, R. Graeff, Q. Xie, K.L. Gamble, T. Mori, C.H. Johnson, Comment on “The Arabidopsis circadian clock incorporates a cADPR-based feedback loop,” Science. 326 (2009) 230; author reply 230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.E. Rowe, Electromagnetic Propagation in Multi-Mode Random Media, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 2001.
An edited book
K. Aizawa, Y. Nakamura, S. Satoh, eds., Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2004: 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Tokyo, Japan, November 30 - December 3, 2004. Proceedings, Part III, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Orellana-Escobedo, S.S. Korban, S. Rosales-Mendoza, Seed-Based Expression Strategies, in: S. Rosales-Mendoza (Ed.), Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases: An Integrated View, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 79–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Switching and Networking.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How We Discovered The World’s Oldest Fossils, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Yamada, The role of the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE2 (TIR2) gene in auxin synthesis in Arabidopsis, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R.D. McFADDEN, June Foray Is Dead at 99; Voiced Rocky and a Cast Of Animated Characters, New York Times. (2017) A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Switching and Networking
AbbreviationOpt. Switch. Netw.
ISSN (print)1573-4277
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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