How to format your references using the Optical Switching and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Switching and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Z. Merali, Quantum computing: The power of discord, Nature. 474 (2011) 24–26.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.A. Melbourne, A. Hastings, Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity, Nature. 454 (2008) 100–103.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Benton, K.S. Vannice, L.B. Vosshall, An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila, Nature. 450 (2007) 289–293.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Q.-L. Ying, J. Nichols, E.P. Evans, A.G. Smith, Changing potency by spontaneous fusion, Nature. 416 (2002) 545–548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Bucci, Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
S. Kramer, B. Pfahringer, eds., Inductive Logic Programming: 15th International Conference, ILP 2005, Bonn, Germany, August 10-13, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
J.M. Farnan, V.M. Arora, Graduate Medical Education and Patient Safety, in: A. Agrawal (Ed.), Patient Safety: A Case-Based Comprehensive Guide, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Switching and Networking.

Blog post
D. Andrew, 22 Ways To Cut Your Energy Bills (Before Spending On Solar Panels), IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Residential Treatment Programs: Concerns Regarding Abuse and Death in Certain Programs for Troubled Youth, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.H. Bissell, Working in the transference as a multicultural intervention, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, ‘Today’ Host Discussing NBC Exit After Lewd Tape, New York Times. (2016) B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Switching and Networking
AbbreviationOpt. Switch. Netw.
ISSN (print)1573-4277
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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