How to format your references using the Optical Switching and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Switching and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.J. Falke, Enzymology. A moving story, Science. 295 (2002) 1480–1481.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.R. Ives, M.C. Whitlock, Ecology. Inbreeding and metapopulations, Science. 295 (2002) 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.M. Alston, J.M. Beddow, P.G. Pardey, Agriculture. Agricultural research, productivity, and food prices in the long run, Science. 325 (2009) 1209–1210.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.G. Nystul, J.P. Goldmark, P.A. Padilla, M.B. Roth, Suspended animation in C. elegans requires the spindle checkpoint, Science. 302 (2003) 1038–1041.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Horton, Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
P.M.G.P. Moreira, L.F.M. da Silva, P.M.S.T. de Castro, eds., Structural Connections for Lightweight Metallic Structures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Vamvatsikos, Some Thoughts on Methods to Compare the Seismic Performance of Alternate Structural Designs, in: M. Dolšek (Ed.), Protection of Built Environment Against Earthquakes, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 77–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Switching and Networking.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Watch Live As NASA Inflates The First Expandable Module On The ISS, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Agencies Need to Better Measure Cybersecurity Progress, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Gogri, Effect of Water Hardness on Adsorption of Lead From Aqueous Solutions Using Douglas Fir Biochar, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Turkewitz, S.G. Stolberg, J. Eligon, A. Blinder, Before the Gunfire in Virginia, A Volatile Home Life in Illinois, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Switching and Networking
AbbreviationOpt. Switch. Netw.
ISSN (print)1573-4277
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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