How to format your references using the Optical Nanoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Nanoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White N (2000) Imaging black holes. Nature 407:146–147
A journal article with 2 authors
Hill A, Cooke G (2014) Medicine. Hepatitis C can be cured globally, but at what cost? Science 345:141–142
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavrentovich OD, Lazo I, Pishnyak OP (2010) Nonlinear electrophoresis of dielectric and metal spheres in a nematic liquid crystal. Nature 467:947–950
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rubio-Martinez M, Batten MP, Polyzos A, et al (2014) Versatile, high quality and scalable continuous flow production of metal-organic frameworks. Sci Rep 4:5443

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) (2011) Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Erdmann VA, Poller W, Barciszewski J (eds) (2008) RNA Technologies in Cardiovascular Medicine and Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Vadicherla T, Saravanan D (2014) Textiles and Apparel Development Using Recycled and Reclaimed Fibers. In: Muthu SS (ed) Roadmap to Sustainable Textiles and Clothing: Eco-friendly Raw Materials, Technologies, and Processing Methods. Springer, Singapore, pp 139–160

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Nanoscopy.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) There Might Be A Huge Salty Ocean Beneath Pluto’s Heart. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Review of the Emergency School Assistance Program Community Grants Awarded to the Nashville Urban League by the Office of Education, HEW. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soto M (2009) Barriers among Hispanic adults on dialysis that affect medication compliance. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley S, Silver-Greenberg J (2017) Lost Paperwork May Erase Student Debt for Tens of Thousands. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2000).
This sentence cites two references (White 2000; Hill and Cooke 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hill and Cooke 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rubio-Martinez et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Nanoscopy
AbbreviationOpt. Nanoscopy
ISSN (online)2192-2853
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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