How to format your references using the Optical Nanoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Nanoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker NJ (2002) Tech.Sight. A technique whose time has come. Science 296:557–559
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan H, Marmorstein R (2013) Biochemistry. Red wine, toast of the town (again). Science 339:1156–1157
A journal article with 3 authors
Gahan LJ, Gould F, Heckel DG (2001) Identification of a gene associated with Bt resistance in Heliothis virescens. Science 293:857–860
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Treydte KS, Schleser GH, Helle G, et al (2006) The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium. Nature 440:1179–1182

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eicker U (2005) Solar Technologies for Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Bartolo BD, Collins J (eds) (2011) Biophotonics: Spectroscopy, Imaging, Sensing, and Manipulation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Deleris LA, Erhun F (2011) Quantitative Risk Assessment in Supply Chains: A Case Study Based on Engineering Risk Analysis Concepts. In: Kempf KG, Keskinocak P, Uzsoy R (eds) Planning Production and Inventories in the Extended Enterprise: A State-of-the-Art Handbook, Volume 2. Springer, New York, NY, pp 105–131

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Nanoscopy.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) NASA And FEMA Ran An Asteroid Impact Emergency Planning Exercise. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Transportation-Disadvantaged Seniors: Efforts to Enhance Senior Mobility Could Benefit from Additional Guidance and Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dammann NM (2009) Living in the edge: Community based governance in the aquatic terrestrial zone. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Yes, Luis Castillo Is Still With the Mets. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walker 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Walker 2002; Yuan and Marmorstein 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan and Marmorstein 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Treydte et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Nanoscopy
AbbreviationOpt. Nanoscopy
ISSN (online)2192-2853
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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