How to format your references using the Optical Nanoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Nanoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snyder SH (2005) Obituary: Julius Axelrod (1912-2004). Nature 433:593
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson SH, Shirey SB (2008) Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds. Nature 453:910–913
A journal article with 3 authors
Tseng C-H, Gobell JL, Sperling G (2004) Long-lasting sensitization to a given colour after visual search. Nature 428:657–660
A journal article with 5 or more authors
De Luca A, Caraveo PA, Mereghetti S, et al (2006) A long-period, violently variable X-ray source in a young supernova remnant. Science 313:814–817

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huber PJ (2011) Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Houghton PJ, Arceci RJ (eds) (2010) Molecularly Targeted Therapy for Childhood Cancer. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Manu V, Akhil G, Abhinav V, et al (2012) On Demand Logical Resource Replication Scheme as a Service. In: Das VV, Stephen J (eds) Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing: Third International Conference, CNC 2012, Chennai, India, February 24-25, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 31–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Nanoscopy.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Revealed: how baby sea turtles spend their “lost years.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Will Continue to Have Difficulty Controlling Its Costs and Meeting Capital Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey CN (2015) The influence of gardens on resilience in older adults living in a continuing care community. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher S (2017) Modern Help for the Brokenhearted? It’s Online. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Snyder 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Snyder 2005; Richardson and Shirey 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Shirey 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (De Luca et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Nanoscopy
AbbreviationOpt. Nanoscopy
ISSN (online)2192-2853
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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