How to format your references using the Optical Nanoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Nanoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Retallack GJ (2013) Ediacaran life on land. Nature 493:89–92
A journal article with 2 authors
Jung GY, Stephanopoulos G (2004) A functional protein chip for pathway optimization and in vitro metabolic engineering. Science 304:428–431
A journal article with 3 authors
Inaba M, Yamanaka H, Kondo S (2012) Pigment pattern formation by contact-dependent depolarization. Science 335:677
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Won JM, Choi SH, Hong YJ, et al (2014) Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery. Sci Rep 4:5857

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson JB, Johannesson R (2005) Understanding Information Transmission. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Harada K, Yoshida E, Yokoi K (eds) (2010) Motion Planning for Humanoid Robots. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Aronson T, Hogan A, O’Brien W, et al (2006) Achieving Best Execution Through Market Structure Development. In: Schwartz RA, Byrne JA, Colaninno A (eds) Electronic vs. Floor Based Trading. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 49–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Nanoscopy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Legacy Of John Nash And His Equilibrium Theory. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner G (2010) Falls among older adults 65 years and older. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robles F, Blinder A (2015) A Stark Image of a Shooting Carries Impact. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Retallack 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Jung and Stephanopoulos 2004; Retallack 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jung and Stephanopoulos 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Won et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Nanoscopy
AbbreviationOpt. Nanoscopy
ISSN (online)2192-2853
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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