How to format your references using the Optical Nanoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Nanoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P (2002) Statistics: the physics of society. Nature 415:371
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiappe LM, Bertelli S (2006) Palaeontology: skull morphology of giant terror birds. Nature 443:929
A journal article with 3 authors
Fricke HC, Hencecroth J, Hoerner ME (2011) Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch. Nature 480:513–515
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Novelli F, Fausti D, Giusti F, et al (2013) Mixed regime of light-matter interaction revealed by phase sensitive measurements of the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect. Sci Rep 3:1227

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson RK (2012) Visual Data Mining. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Zentes J (2007) Strategic Retail Management: Text and International Cases. Gabler, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Fasano G (2016) Resource-Constrained Scheduling with Non-constant Capacity and Non-regular Activities. In: Fasano G, Pintér JD (eds) Space Engineering: Modeling and Optimization with Case Studies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 103–128

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Nanoscopy.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) High Levels Of Ocean Pollutants May Be Impacting Dolphin Immune Systems. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Perkins Student Loans: Need for Better Controls Over Loans Recovered From Closed Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb SL (2012) Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Victory for Morale Precedes an Actual Loss. New York Times SP8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2002; Chiappe and Bertelli 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chiappe and Bertelli 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Novelli et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Nanoscopy
AbbreviationOpt. Nanoscopy
ISSN (online)2192-2853
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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