How to format your references using the Optical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Schopper, Islam and science: where are the new patrons of science?, Nature. 444 (2006) 35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Singh, I.A. Demarco, Immunology. Double TIP-ping, Science. 329 (2010) 914–915.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Dharmasiri, S. Dharmasiri, M. Estelle, The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor, Nature. 435 (2005) 441–445.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.E. Kokoszka, K.G. Waymire, S.E. Levy, J.E. Sligh, J. Cai, D.P. Jones, G.R. MacGregor, D.C. Wallace, The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, Nature. 427 (2004) 461–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.C. Carvalho, Practical Laboratory Automation, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2016.
An edited book
Y.Q. Shi, S. Katzenbeisser, eds., Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security VIII: Special Issue on Pattern Recognition for IT Security, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
T.J. Schuijt, T. Poll, W.J. Wiersinga, Gut Microbiome and Host Defense Interactions during Critical Illness, in: J.-L. Vincent (Ed.), Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2012, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 29–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials.

Blog post
K. Evans, This Is What Earth Will Look Like In 100 Years – If We’re Lucky, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Motor Carriers: More Could Be Done to Determine Impact of Excessive Loading and Unloading Wait Times on Hours of Service Violations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.D. Parker, Uncovering Three Trumpet Works of Sofia Gubaidulina, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Grynbaum, E. Steel, After Ailes’s Departure, a Stony Silence at Fox, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials
AbbreviationOpt. Mater. (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0925-3467
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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