How to format your references using the Optical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Ory, Scientists and societies. Two-body problem, Nature. 429 (2004) 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.T.M. Kennis, S. Crosson, Microbiology. A bacterial pathogen sees the light, Science. 317 (2007) 1041–1042.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.B. Ford, V. Lystad, F.A. Rasio, Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system, Nature. 434 (2005) 873–876.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Senju, V. Southgate, S. White, U. Frith, Mindblind eyes: an absence of spontaneous theory of mind in Asperger syndrome, Science. 325 (2009) 883–885.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Unmehopa, K. Vemuri, A. Bennett, Parlay/OSA, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
H.M. Becerra, Visual Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots: Unifying Vision and Control in Generic Approaches, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Aarts, F. Heidarian, H. Kuppens, P. Olsen, F. Vaandrager, Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement, in: D. Giannakopoulou, D. Méry (Eds.), FM 2012: Formal Methods: 18th International Symposium, Paris, France, August 27-31, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 10–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials.

Blog post
J. Fang, Different Butterflies And Moths Experience Climate Change Differently, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Effect of Personnel Reform on the Federal Aviation Administration’s Budget, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.A. Odom, Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.B. Stewart, Hedge Fund Math: Heads or Tails, They Win, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials
AbbreviationOpt. Mater. (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0925-3467
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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