How to format your references using the BioMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connor CE. Neuroscience. A new viewpoint on faces. Science 2010;330:764–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons EM, Hartwig JF. Catalytic functionalization of unactivated primary C-H bonds directed by an alcohol. Nature 2012;483:70–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelly BP, Whiteley A, Tallmon D. The Arctic melting pot. Nature 2010;468:891.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sarrao JL, Morales LA, Thompson JD, Scott BL, Stewart GR, Wastin F, et al. Plutonium-based superconductivity with a transition temperature above 18 K. Nature 2002;420:297–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitschen K. Building Reliable Trading Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Sun J, Jiao W, Wu H, Lu M, editors. China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings: Volume III. vol. 305. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Okot-Okumu J, Oosterveer P. Providing Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Uganda. In: van Vliet B, Spaargaren G, Oosterveer P, editors. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 49–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMedicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Baby Giant Squid Caught In Japan. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Proposed Changes to DAR Cost Principles and Internal Procedures]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu C. Regulatory functions of the actin cytoskeleton in B cell receptor signaling. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Dempsey’s Hat Trick Seals a Win and Steadies a World Cup Campaign. New York Times 2017:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMedicine
ISSN (print)2211-8020

Other styles