How to format your references using the BioMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood SN. Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems. Nature 2010;466:1102–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vafabakhsh R, Ha T. Extreme bendability of DNA less than 100 base pairs long revealed by single-molecule cyclization. Science 2012;337:1097–101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mendoza M, Succi S, Herrmann HJ. Flow through randomly curved manifolds. Sci Rep 2013;3:3106.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu J, Zhong J, Tang Y, Huang T, Cao J, Kurths J. Synchronization in output-coupled temporal Boolean networks. Sci Rep 2014;4:6292.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morales G, Kacher C. Short Selling with the O’Neil Disciples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
DeMichelis C, Ferrari M, editors. Child and Adolescent Resilience Within Medical Contexts: Integrating Research and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi T, Suzuki T. Role of Glycans in Viral Infection. In: Suzuki T, Ohtsubo K, Taniguchi N, editors. Sugar Chains: Decoding the Functions of Glycans, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMedicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Failed Star Found In Our Solar Neighborhood By Citizen Scientists. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Tax Systems Modernization, Tax Delinquencies, and the Potential for Return-Free Filing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ambaw Y. Promoting the well-being of black student athletes: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Old Graveyards Suffering The Ravages of Vandalism. New York Times 2007:WE15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMedicine
ISSN (print)2211-8020

Other styles