How to format your references using the BioMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruoff RS. Journal club. A physical chemist is excited by the electronic potential of a new arrangement of carbon sheets. Nature 2010;463:853.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tedford RH, Harington CR. An Arctic mammal fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America. Nature 2003;425:388–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ward AB, Sali A, Wilson IA. Biochemistry. Integrative structural biology. Science 2013;339:913–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Panáková D, Sprong H, Marois E, Thiele C, Eaton S. Lipoprotein particles are required for Hedgehog and Wingless signalling. Nature 2005;435:58–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adámek J. Foundations of Coding. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1991.
An edited book
lisahunter. Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions. vol. 26. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
de Camargo DQ, Bodmann BEJ, Vilhena MT, Leite S d. QB. A Novel Method for Simulating Spectral Nuclear Reactor Criticality by a Spatially Dependent Volume Size Control. In: Constanda C, Harris PJ, editors. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects, Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2011, p. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMedicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Hubble Snaps Picture Of Some Of The Earliest Known Galaxies. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects: Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayner SW. Transformational leadership and organizational change during agile and devops initiatives. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Endrst J. Hugh O’Brian, Dashing Leading Man Remembered for ‘Wyatt Earp,’ Dies at 91. New York Times 2016:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMedicine
ISSN (print)2211-8020

Other styles