How to format your references using the Ophthalmology citation style
This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.
Using reference management software
Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:
The citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
The style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.
Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.
Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.
A journal article with 1 author
1. Palme H. Planetary science. A new solar system basalt. Science 2002;296:271–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Choi YJ, Lee SY. Microbial production of short-chain alkanes. Nature 2013;502:571–574.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rauzi M, Lenne P-F, Lecuit T. Planar polarized actomyosin contractile flows control epithelial junction remodelling. Nature 2010;468:1110–1114.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Gordon JM, Feuermann D, Huleihil M, et al. Fibre optics: surgery by sunlight on live animals. Nature 2003;424:510.
Books and book chapters
Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.
An authored book
1. Bagdonavičius V, Kruopis J, Nikulin MS. Non-parametric Tests for Censored Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
1. Zihl J. Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children: Visuoperceptive and Visuocognitive Disorders. (Dutton GN, ed.). Vienna: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Guo S. The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Procedures and Liu Hui’s Mathematical Theory. In: Knobloch E, Komatsu H, Liu D, eds. Seki, Founder of Modern Mathematics in Japan: A Commemoration on His Tercentenary. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2013:63–88.
Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology.
This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Program Costs: Space Missions Require Substantially More Funding Than Initially Estimated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.
Theses and dissertations
Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.
1. Jo SM. A study of Korean students’ creativity in science using structural equation modeling. 2009.
News paper articles
Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE INAUGURATION: Seizing the Day; New President Brings Opportunity to Cash In. New York Times 1993:A12.
References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:
This sentence cites one reference 1. This sentence cites two references 1,2. This sentence cites four references 1–4.