How to format your references using the Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chamberlin RV. Mean-field cluster model for the critical behaviour of ferromagnets. Nature 2000;408:337–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ishibashi J, Seale P. Medicine. Beige can be slimming. Science 2010;328:1113–1114.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Boots M, Hudson PJ, Sasaki A. Large shifts in pathogen virulence relate to host population structure. Science 2004;303:842–844.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Jin S, Li Y, Pan R, Zou X. Characterizing and controlling the inflammatory network during influenza A virus infection. Sci Rep 2014;4:3799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Demand NH. The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Jørgensen U, Brodersen S eds. Engineering Professionalism: Engineering Practices in Work and Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Moemeka E, Moemeka E. Building an Adaptive Experience. In: Moemeka E, ed. Real World Windows 10 Development. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015:179–207.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Ants Might Be Cheap, Effective Alternatives To Chemical Pesticides. IFLScience 2015. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Combined Fund Update. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cornelius DA. The value of Scrum to organizations: A case study. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. Growing More Diverse. New York Times 2008:NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology
ISSN (print)0161-6420
ISSN (online)1549-4713

Other styles