How to format your references using the Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Yang LH. Periodical cicadas as resource pulses in North American forests. Science 2004;306:1565–1567.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thomas GL, Thorne RE. Night-time predation by Steller sea lions. Nature 2001;411:1013.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shen P-C, Lin M-S, Lin C-F. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission. Sci Rep 2014;4:5307.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Panda SK, Dasgupta I, Şaşıoğlu E, et al. NiS--an unusual self-doped, nearly compensated antiferromagnetic metal. Sci Rep 2013;3:2995.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dean JR. Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy: Dean/Plasma. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Cigna AA, Durante M eds. Radiation Risk Estimates in Normal and Emergency Situations. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Charalambous P, Chrysanthou Y. Learning Crowd Steering Behaviors from Examples. In: Boulic R, Chrysanthou Y, Komura T, eds. Motion in Games: Third International Conference, MIG 2010, Utrecht, The Netherlands, November 14-16, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:35–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Our New Pterosaur Fossil Shows Birds And Small Reptiles Flew Side By Side. IFLScience 2016. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Need To Resolve Safety Questions on Saccharin. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lu Y-C. From confrontation to accommodation: China’s policy toward the U.S. in the post-Cold War era. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Abad S, Casey N. Race Is On to Find Survivors of Colombia Mudslide. New York Times 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology
ISSN (print)0161-6420
ISSN (online)1549-4713

Other styles