How to format your references using the Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marx V. Neurobiology: Brain mapping in high resolution. Nature 2013;503:147–152.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Valbuzzi A, Yanofsky C. Inhibition of the B. subtilis regulatory protein TRAP by the TRAP-inhibitory protein, AT. Science 2001;293:2057–2059.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ho BT, Basler M, Mekalanos JJ. Type 6 secretion system-mediated immunity to type 4 secretion system-mediated gene transfer. Science 2013;342:250–253.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Genovese G, Friedman DJ, Ross MD, et al. Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans. Science 2010;329:841–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Abran A. Software Project Estimation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Silva GJ. PID Controllers for Time-Delay Systems. (Datta A, Bhattachaiyya SP, eds.). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Azkarate A, Escribano-Ruiz S, Sánchez-Pinto I, Benedet V. Thoughts on Early Spanish Colonialism Through Two American Case Studies: Basque Fisheries (Canada) and Sancti Spiritus Settlement (Argentina). In: Montón-Subías S, Cruz Berrocal M, Ruiz Martínez A, eds. Archaeologies of Early Modern Spanish Colonialism. Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:93–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Comets’ Nuclei Break Up And Make Up Over Their Life Time. IFLScience 2016. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/space/comets-nuclei-break-up-and-make-up-over-their-life-time/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Discretionary Grants: Further Tightening of Education’s Procedures for Making Awards Could Improve Transparency and Accountability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gilbert SA. Succession Planning Relating to the Millennial Generation in Private Four-Year Universities. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. After 30 Years, Supreme Court History Project Turns a Final Page. New York Times 2006:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology
AbbreviationOphthalmology
ISSN (print)0161-6420
ISSN (online)1549-4713
ScopeOphthalmology

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