How to format your references using the Ophthalmology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Winful HG. Optics (communication arising): mechanism for “superluminal” tunnelling. Nature. 2003;424:638; discussion 638.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gilmore MS, Ferretti JJ. Microbiology. The thin line between gut commensal and pathogen. Science. 2003;299:1999–2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Huang L, Treisman A, Pashler H. Characterizing the limits of human visual awareness. Science. 2007;317:823–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fernández-Pacheco A, Serrano-Ramón L, Michalik JM, Ibarra MR, De Teresa JM, O’Brien L, et al. Three dimensional magnetic nanowires grown by focused electron-beam induced deposition. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kontush A, Chapman MJ. High-Density Lipoproteins. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Fossen TI, Nijmeijer H, editors. Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Eremeyev VA, Pietraszkiewicz W. Material Symmetry Group and Consistently Reduced Constitutive Equations of the Elastic Cosserat Continuum. In: Altenbach H, Forest S, Krivtsov A, editors. Generalized Continua as Models for Materials: with Multi-scale Effects or Under Multi-field Actions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 77–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Concorde Could Fly London To New York In One Hour [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/new-concorde-could-fly-london-new-york-55-minutes/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. High-Containment Laboratories: Actions Needed to Mitigate Risk of Potential Exposure and Release of Dangerous Pathogens. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Sep. Report No.: GAO-16-871T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Howard AG. Large margin transformation learning [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. At Airline, A Pensions Compromise. New York Times. 2012 Mar 8;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology and Therapy
AbbreviationOphthalmol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8245
ISSN (online)2193-6528
ScopeOphthalmology

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