How to format your references using the Ophthalmology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Check E. Safety panel backs principle of gene-therapy trials. Nature. 2002;420:595.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cassenaer S, Laurent G. Conditional modulation of spike-timing-dependent plasticity for olfactory learning. Nature. 2012;482:47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bottke WF, Vokrouhlický D, Nesvorný D. An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor. Nature. 2007;449:48–53.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang Z, Ma J, Miyoshi C, Li Y, Sato M, Ogawa Y, et al. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the molecular substrates of sleep need. Nature. 2018;558:435–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sundar V. Ocean Wave Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Stephanidis C, editor. HCI International 2015 - Posters’ Extended Abstracts: International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015. Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rastgaar M, Mahmoudian N. Robustness of Orthogonal Eigenstructure Control to Actuators Failure. In: Jazar RN, Dai L, editors. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications 2. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 137–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. This Is What Happens If You Wear Magnetic Items In An MRI Machine [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-dangerous-are-magnetic-items-near-mri-machine/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Medicare: Impact of Changing Transportation Policy for Portable Equipment Is Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 May. Report No.: HEHS-98-82.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lin TS. The invisible “religious” minority: Working with the nonreligious bereaved [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. Remembering ‘Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In.’ New York Times. 2015 Sep 11;C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology and Therapy
AbbreviationOphthalmol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8245
ISSN (online)2193-6528
ScopeOphthalmology

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