How to format your references using the Ophthalmology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McBride H. Young scientist: women mentoring women. Nature. 2003;426:588.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Knauth LP, Kennedy MJ. The late Precambrian greening of the Earth. Nature. 2009;460:728–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Coppedè N, Villani M, Gentile F. Diffusion driven selectivity in organic electrochemical transistors. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4297.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang JV, Ren P-G, Avsian-Kretchmer O, Luo C-W, Rauch R, Klein C, et al. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin’s effects on food intake. Science. 2005;310:996–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Juhnke GA, Granello DH, Granello PF. Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Treschev D. Introduction to the Perturbation Theory of Hamiltonian Systems. Zubelevich O, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bhat M, Pouliot M, Couture R, Vaucher E. The Kallikrein-Kinin System in Diabetic Retinopathy. In: Sharma JN, editor. Recent Developments in the Regulation of Kinins. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 111–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Massive Die-Offs of Fish, Birds, and Marine Invertebrates Becoming More Frequent [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/massive-die-offs-fish-birds-and-marine-invertebrates-becoming-more-frequent/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness Improving, But Much Work Remains to Avoid Major Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jan. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-50.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kunihiro AG. The relationship between dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. WBGO Is Giving Jazz a Higher Profile Online. New York Times. 2017 Jan 10;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology and Therapy
AbbreviationOphthalmol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8245
ISSN (online)2193-6528
ScopeOphthalmology

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