How to format your references using the Ophthalmology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Currey JD. Materials science. Hierarchies in biomineral structures. Science. 2005;309:253–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Haiser HJ, Turnbaugh PJ. Is it time for a metagenomic basis of therapeutics? Science. 2012;336:1253–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sakamaki T, Suzuki A, Ohtani E. Stability of hydrous melt at the base of the Earth’s upper mantle. Nature. 2006;439:192–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stensmyr MC, Urru I, Collu I, Celander M, Hansson BS, Angioy A-M. Pollination: Rotting smell of dead-horse arum florets. Nature. 2002;420:625–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Radwanska M, Stankiewicz A, Wosatko A, Pamin J. Plate and Shell Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Minguez R, Sarabia J-M, Balakrishnan N, Arnold BC, editors. Advances in Mathematical and Statistical Modeling. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nakata K, Sabelfeld A. Securing Class Initialization. In: Nishigaki M, Jøsang A, Murayama Y, Marsh S, editors. Trust Management IV: 4th IFIP WG 1111 International Conference, IFIPTM 2010, Morioka, Japan, June 16-18, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Incredibly Preserved Frozen Cave Lions Found In Siberia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Consolidation of American Forces Radio and Television Service--Washington and Los Angeles Broadcasting Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 May. Report No.: LCD-80-54.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McCarty A. Measuring the impact of training in the implementation of project management information systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hollander S. On Way to Rout, Liberty Wins at the Free-Throw Line. New York Times. 2000 Jun 19;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology and Therapy
AbbreviationOphthalmol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8245
ISSN (online)2193-6528

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