How to format your references using the Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan H. New UK legislation aids fight against discrimination. Nature. 2000 Jun;405(6787):716–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephanopoulos G, Kelleher J. Biochemistry. How to make a superior cell. Science. 2001 Jun;292(5524):2024–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Villar G, Graham AD, Bayley H. A tissue-like printed material. Science. 2013 Apr;340(6128):48–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun J, Zhang X-P, Li X-T, Tang L, Cui Y, Zhang X-Y, et al. Applicable apparent diffusion coefficient of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer by improved clinical MRI diffusion weighted imaging. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:6072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casper D. Hollywood Film 1963-1976. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Majumder M. Feasibility Model of Solar Energy Plants by ANN and MCDM Techniques. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kitamura C. Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Solid-State Optical Properties of Substituted Tetracenes. In: Akasaka T, Osuka A, Fukuzumi S, Kandori H, Aso Y, editors. Chemical Science of π-Electron Systems. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015; pp 69–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Mercury Is Tectonically Active Just Like Earth – And Nowhere Else [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Sep


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Needs Enhanced Oversight and Performance Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lincoln JJ. Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Republicans; Encircling Arkansas, Bush Opens Harsh Attack on Clinton’s Record. New York Times. 1992 Sep;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmologica
ISSN (print)0030-3755
ISSN (online)1423-0267
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Sensory Systems

Other styles