How to format your references using the Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore JE: The birth of topological insulators. Nature 2010;464:194–198.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eliades SJ, Wang X: Neural substrates of vocalization feedback monitoring in primate auditory cortex. Nature 2008;453:1102–1106.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shapiro L, McAdams HH, Losick R: Generating and exploiting polarity in bacteria. Science 2002;298:1942–1946.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xia Z, Yang Z, Huynh T, King JA, Zhou R: UV-radiation induced disruption of dry-cavities in human γD-crystallin results in decreased stability and faster unfolding. Sci Rep 2013;3:1560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silva Elipe MV: LC-NMR and Other Hyphenated NMR Techniques. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Kim HK, Ao S-I, Rieger BB (eds): IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies: Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Boughareb D, Farah N: Toward a Web Search Personalization Approach Based on Temporal Context; in Cherifi H, Zain JM, El-Qawasmeh E (eds): Digital Information and Communication Technology and Its Applications: International Conference, DICTAP 2011, Dijon, France, June 21-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Andrew E: It’s Not All About Aliens – Listening Project May Unveil Other Secrets Of The Universe. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Motor Carrier Safety: Commercial Vehicle Registration Program Has Kept Unsafe Carriers from Operating, but Effectiveness Is Difficult to Measure. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinckley M: Socioecological factors that affect adolescent nervousness and depression 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Mets Start Spring as Big Spenders, and Carrying an Outfield Surplus. New York Times 2017;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmologica
ISSN (print)0030-3755
ISSN (online)1423-0267
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Sensory Systems

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