How to format your references using the Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Thrill of space exploration is a universal constant. Nature. 2013 Nov;503(7476):313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alexandrakis G, Poulos SΕ. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:6078.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stern P, Hines PJ, Travis J. The aging brain. Introduction. Science. 2014 Oct;346(6209):566–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vaudry D, Falluel-Morel A, Leuillet S, Vaudry H, Gonzalez BJ. Regulators of cerebellar granule cell development act through specific signaling pathways. Science. 2003 Jun;300(5625):1532–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli D. IP Multicast with Applications to IPTV and Mobile DVB-H. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Stanko EA. Police Use of Research Evidence: Recommendations for Improvement. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
McLean JM, Athwal GS, Daneshvar P. Reconstruction Techniques for Fractures of the Proximal Ulna and Radial Head. In: Antuña S, Barco R, editors. Essential Techniques in Elbow Surgery. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 59–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Hamilton K. What Consumers Want In GM Food Labeling Is Simpler Than You Think [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Data Transparency: Oversight Needed to Address Underreporting and Inconsistencies on Federal Award Website. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haxton SA. Student Risk Perception in the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kristof ND. Tussling Over Jesus. New York Times. 2011 Jan;A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmologica
ISSN (print)0030-3755
ISSN (online)1423-0267
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Sensory Systems

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