How to format your references using the Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nattel S. New ideas about atrial fibrillation 50 years on. Nature. 2002 Jan;415(6868):219–26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ioannidis JPA, Khoury MJ. Improving validation practices in “omics” research. Science. 2011 Dec;334(6060):1230–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hedrick TL, Cheng B, Deng X. Wingbeat time and the scaling of passive rotational damping in flapping flight. Science. 2009 Apr;324(5924):252–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Greilich A, Yakovlev DR, Shabaev A, Efros AL, Yugova IA, Oulton R, et al. Mode locking of electron spin coherences in singly charged quantum dots. Science. 2006 Jul;313(5785):341–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goshtasby AA. Theory and Applications of Image Registration. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Seck D, editor. Accelerated Economic Growth in West Africa. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Dronamraju KR. Personal Recollections of Victor. In: Dronamraju KR, Francomano CA, editors. Victor McKusick and the History of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Springer; 2012; pp 35–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Carpineti A. New State Of Matter Might Help With High-Temperature Superconductors [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications Network: NASA Could Better Manage Its Planned Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Svarda D. Man 2 Man. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Mayor Lifts Ban for Chinese New Year Fireworks Shows. New York Times. 2003 Jan;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmologica
ISSN (print)0030-3755
ISSN (online)1423-0267
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Sensory Systems

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