How to format your references using the Open Heart citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Open Heart. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moritz MA. Wildfires ignite debate on global warming. Nature 2012;487:273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichmanis E, Nalamasu O. Applied physics. Testing the limits for resists. Science 2002;297:349–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piras V, Tomita M, Selvarajoo K. Transcriptome-wide variability in single embryonic development cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:7137.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang HG, Sun CH, Qiao SZ, et al. Anatase TiO2 single crystals with a large percentage of reactive facets. Nature 2008;453:638–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hollin CR. The Psychology of Interpersonal Violence. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2016.
An edited book
Herath D, Kroos C, Stelarc, editors. Robots and Art: Exploring an Unlikely Symbiosis. Singapore: : Springer 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Mussa B. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Indications of PICCs in Inpatients and Outpatients. In: Sandrucci S, Mussa B, eds. Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters. Milano: : Springer 2014. 43–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Open Heart.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Most Food Labels Are Wrong About Calories. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Effect of P.L. 99-177 on Teacher Loan Cancellation Program]. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francis TM. The Lived Experience of Caribbean Women and Their Experiences as Senior-Level Leaders: A Phenomenological Study. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Obama Pays Tribute to the ‘Peanuts’ Gang. New York Times. 2016;:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpen Heart
AbbreviationOpen Heart
ISSN (online)2053-3624
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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