How to format your references using the Open Heart citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Open Heart. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seitz F. Decline of the generalist. Nature 2000;403:483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Synolakis C, Foteinis S. Choking on carbon emissions from Greek academic paperwork. Nature 2009;461:167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayle FE, Burbridge R, Killeen TJ. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests. Science 2000;290:2291–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu Y, Zhao Q, Li M-H, et al. Device-independent quantum random-number generation. Nature 2018;562:548–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blundell A, Harrison R, Turney B. The Essential Guide to Becoming a Doctor. Oxford, UK: : Wiley-Blackwell 2010.
An edited book
Cicognani M, Colombini F, Del Santo D, editors. Studies in Phase Space Analysis with Applications to PDEs. New York, NY: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansen LJ, Hoffman JR. Buying Time. In: Hoffman JR, ed. Climate Savvy: Adapting Conservation and Resource Management to a Changing World. Washington, DC: : Island Press/Center for Resource Economics 2011. 37–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Open Heart.

Blog post
Andrew E. There’s No Evidence Of Any Health Benefits To Eating Your Placenta. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Pension and Fringe Benefits for Contractors’ Employees at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell FM. A study of the effects of nanoparticle modification on the thermal, mechanical and hygrothermal performance of carbon/vinyl ester composites. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein N. Medicaid Shift Fuels Rush for Profitable Clients. New York Times. 2014;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpen Heart
AbbreviationOpen Heart
ISSN (online)2053-3624
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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