How to format your references using the Oncology Signaling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Signaling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sappol M. Perceptions of science. The anatomical mission to Burma. Science. 2003;302(5643):232-233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peck JR, Waxman D. Mutation and sex in a competitive world. Nature. 2000;406(6794):399-404.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor JE, Duda JJ, Grant GE. Ecology. 1000 dams down and counting. Science. 2015;348(6234):496-497.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lim MM, Wang Z, Olazábal DE, Ren X, Terwilliger EF, Young LJ. Enhanced partner preference in a promiscuous species by manipulating the expression of a single gene. Nature. 2004;429(6993):754-757.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hong G. Causality in a Social World. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Liu B-L, Lee S-J, Wang L, Li X, Xiao J-H, eds. Contemporary Logistics in China: Consolidation and Deepening. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Casas I, Ochoa SF, Puente J. Using Tablet PCs and Pen-Based Technologies to Support Engineering Education. In: Jacko JA, ed. Human-Computer Interaction. Interacting in Various Application Domains: 13th International Conference, HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009, Proceedings, Part IV. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:31-38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Signaling.

Blog post
Andrew E. David Attenborough Says The Great Barrier Reef Is In ‘Grave Danger’ – It’s Time To Step Up. IFLScience. Published April 26, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of NASA’s Solicitation for the Leasing of Office Space in the Houston, Texas, Area. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene AE. An Inquiry into Workplace Incivility: Perceptions of Working Graduate Students. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Southampton Buys A Girl Scout Camp. New York Times. November 26, 2006:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Signaling
ISSN (print)2542-5633

Other styles