How to format your references using the Oncology Signaling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Signaling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes DK. Resource availability: Ancient homes for hard-up hermit crabs. Nature. 2001;412(6849):785-786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coley PD, Kursar TA. Ecology. On tropical forests and their pests. Science. 2014;343(6166):35-36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson JS, Rittle J, Peters JC. Catalytic conversion of nitrogen to ammonia by an iron model complex. Nature. 2013;501(7465):84-87.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Colaprete A, Barnes JR, Haberle RM, Hollingsworth JL, Kieffer HH, Titus TN. Albedo of the south pole on Mars determined by topographic forcing of atmosphere dynamics. Nature. 2005;435(7039):184-188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe S. Frontier Road. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Moed HF, Glänzel W, Schmoch U, eds. Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research: The Use of Publication and Patent Statistics in Studies of S&T Systems. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Do LLTN, Nguyen Do LLT, Axe JB, et al. 2004 Education for All Handicapped Children Act. In: Goldstein S, Naglieri JA, eds. Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer US; 2011:547-547.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Signaling.

Blog post
Andrew E. Total Lunar Eclipse Tetrad Begins On April 15. IFLScience. Published April 1, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo F. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Dreading the Thin Envelope. New York Times. April 6, 2003:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Signaling
ISSN (print)2542-5633

Other styles