How to format your references using the Oncology Signaling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Signaling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sethmann I. Materials science. Creating flexible calcite fibers with proteins. Science. 2013;339(6125):1281-1282.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freed AM, Lin J. Delayed triggering of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake by viscoelastic stress transfer. Nature. 2001;411(6834):180-183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu D, Amagai S, Bricken J. Science education. Engaging teachers, scientists, and multimedia to promote learning. Science. 2012;336(6088):1509.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koss MJ, Blecha L, Bernhard P, et al. A population of luminous accreting black holes with hidden mergers. Nature. 2018;563(7730):214-216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geisser S. Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference: Geisser/Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Bolc L, Tadeusiewicz R, Chmielewski LJ, Wojciechowski K, eds. Computer Vision and Graphics: International Conference, ICCVG 2010, Warsaw, Poland, September 20-22, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Vol 6375. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicolini C, Lepri B, Teso S, Passerini A. From On-Going to Complete Activity Recognition Exploiting Related Activities. In: Salah AA, Gevers T, Sebe N, Vinciarelli A, eds. Human Behavior Understanding: First International Workshop, HBU 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, August 22, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:26-37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Signaling.

Blog post
Luntz S. Seawater Can Reach Right To The Edge Of The Earth’s Core. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal R&D Budget. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldberg DS. Poly (amido amine) dendrimers: Transepithelial transport mechanisms and applications in oral drug delivery. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shattuck K. A Break From ‘House of Cards’ Intrigue. New York Times. June 2, 2017:MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Signaling
ISSN (print)2542-5633

Other styles