How to format your references using the Oncology Signaling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Signaling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dagotto E. Complexity in strongly correlated electronic systems. Science. 2005;309(5732):257-262.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rash BG, Rakic P. Neuroscience. Genetic resolutions of brain convolutions. Science. 2014;343(6172):744-745.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lynch VJ, May G, Wagner GP. Regulatory evolution through divergence of a phosphoswitch in the transcription factor CEBPB. Nature. 2011;480(7377):383-386.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoshida S, Kono K, Lowery DM, et al. Polo-like kinase Cdc5 controls the local activation of Rho1 to promote cytokinesis. Science. 2006;313(5783):108-111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ness L. Securing Utility and Energy Infrastructures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Itenberg I. Tropical Algebraic Geometry. Vol 35. (Mikhalkin G, Shustin E, eds.). Birkhäuser; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Jain J, Abdullah N, Lim BK. Science Learners’ Conceptions on the Scientific Theory-Law Relationship: A Phenomenographic Case Study. In: Fook CY, Sidhu GK, Narasuman S, Fong LL, Abdul Rahman SB, eds. 7th International Conference on University Learning and Teaching (InCULT 2014) Proceedings: Educate to Innovate. Springer; 2016:39-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Signaling.

Blog post
Andrew E. Primitive Meteorites Brought Water To Early Earth. IFLScience. Published October 31, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Nonimmigrant Visa Processing. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere EC. Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Darwyn Cooke, Artist With a Retro Approach to Comics, Dies at 53. New York Times. May 18, 2016:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Signaling
ISSN (print)2542-5633

Other styles