How to format your references using the Stem Cells citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stem Cells. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rodriguez J. Recruiters and industry. Rules of engagement. Nature 2004;429:486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ottino JM, Wiggins S. Applied physics. Designing optimal micromixers. Science 2004;305:485–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gizon L, Duvall TL, Schou J. Wave-like properties of solar supergranulation. Nature 2003;421:43–44.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang B, Côté AP, Furukawa H, et al. Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs. Nature 2008;453:207–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lynn PA. Electricity from Sunlight. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Wang Z-W, editor. Molecular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Krannich RS, Luloff AE, Field DR. “Old West” and “New West”: A Regional Perspective. In: Luloff AE, Field DR, eds. People, Places and Landscapes: Social Change in High Amenity Rural Areas, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011:45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stem Cells.

Blog post
Andrew E. European Weather-Monitoring Satellite Takes Its First Image Of Earth. IFLScience 2015. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automated Support for the Assessment Panel Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gade S. Design and Implementation of Hybrid Hyperchaotic Sequences for Chaos-Based Communication Systems. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF. Jailed 10 Years, but Still Awaiting a Speedy Trial. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStem Cells
AbbreviationStem Cells
ISSN (print)1066-5099
ISSN (online)1549-4918
ScopeCell Biology
Developmental Biology
Molecular Medicine

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