How to format your references using the Journal of Hospital Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hospital Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnard AS. Materials science: nanoscale locomotion without fuel. Nature 2015;519:37–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reik W, Dean W. Back to the beginning. Nature 2002;420:127.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usdin M, Guillerm M, Chirac P. Neglected tests for neglected patients. Nature 2006;441:283–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang Z-T, Li Y-F, Jiang P-K, Chang SX, Song Z-L, Liu J, et al. Long-term intensive management increased carbon occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) in bamboo forest soils. Sci Rep 2014;4:3602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake AL. Handbook of Electrical Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Diagana T. Non-Archimedean Operator Theory. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Roberts P. The White (Supremacist) Continent: Antarctica and Fantasies of Nazi Survival. In: Peder R, van der Watt L-M, Howkins A, editors. Antarctica and the Humanities, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 105–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hospital Infection.

Blog post
Fang J. Seabirds Feast On Seafood Buffet Thanks To Jellyfish Blooms. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Managed Care: State Approaches on Selected Patient Protections. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rountree BL. Theory and practice of dynamic voltage /frequency scaling in the high performance computing environment. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Bernadette Peters To Join ‘Hello, Dolly!’ New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hospital Infection
AbbreviationJ. Hosp. Infect.
ISSN (print)0195-6701
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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