How to format your references using the Ocean Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charron, D. J.: Obituary: Jean Dausset (1916-2009), Nature, 460, 338, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goedert, M. and Cheng, Y.: Parkinson’s disease: Crystals of a toxic core, Nature, 525, 458–459, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Meng, H., and Bao, Z.: Self-assembled monolayer organic field-effect transistors, Nature, 413, 713–716, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
McCarroll, L., Paton, M. G., Karunaratne, S. H., Jayasuryia, H. T., Kalpage, K. S., and Hemingway, J.: Insecticides and mosquito-borne disease, Nature, 407, 961–962, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville, A.: Political Atlas of the Modern World, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Wu, Y. (Ed.): Advanced Technology in Teaching - Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science (WTCS 2009): Volume 1: Intelligent Ubiquitous Computing and Education, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVIII, 972 p. 281 illus pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakhravi, R., Omran, M. T., and Oommen, B. J.: On the Existence and Heuristic Computation of the Solution for the Commons Game, in: Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XIV, edited by: Nguyen, N. T., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 71–99, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science Discussions.

Blog post
Red, Yellow, Pink And Green: How The World’s Languages Name The Rainbow:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: FDA Has Taken Steps to Address Challenges but Needs a Comprehensive Strategic Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leslie, M. S.: Understanding Individual Change in Practice: A Grounded Theory Study of Maternity Care Providers, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G.: For Archie Comics, a Return to Superheroes, New York Times, 10th October, B5, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charron, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Charron, 2009; Goedert and Cheng, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goedert and Cheng, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (McCarroll et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science Discussions
AbbreviationOcean Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-0822

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