How to format your references using the Ocean Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soden, B. J.: Atmospheric physics. Enlightening water vapour, Nature, 406(6793), 247–248, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palczewski, K. and Kiser, P. D.: Biochemistry. As good as chocolate, Science, 340(6132), 562–563, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiong, Q., Znamenskiy, P. and Zador, A. M.: Selective corticostriatal plasticity during acquisition of an auditory discrimination task, Nature, 521(7552), 348–351, 2015.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Zomot, E., Bendahan, A., Quick, M., Zhao, Y., Javitch, J. A. and Kanner, B. I.: Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters, Nature, 449(7163), 726–730, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Port, M.: Beyond Booked Solid, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2008.
An edited book
Curbera, G. P., Mockenhaupt, G. and Ricker, W. J., Eds.: Vector Measures, Integration and Related Topics, Birkhäuser, Basel., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Anellis, I. H.: Peirce’s Role in the History of Logic: Lingua Universalis and Calculus Ratiocinator, in The Road to Universal Logic: Festschrift for the 50th Birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau Volume II, edited by A. Koslow and A. Buchsbaum, pp. 135–169, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: It Turns Out Russia Is Not The Biggest Offender When It Comes To Doping At The Olympics, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FAA’s Proposed Plan for Implementing a Reliability Centered Maintenance Process for Air Traffic Control Equipment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paustian, M. E.: Evaluating competition between the non-native slug Arion subfuscus and the native slug Philomycus carolinianus, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: NBCUniversal Buys TV Rights to ‘Harry Potter,’ New York Times, 8th August, B2, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soden, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Palczewski and Kiser, 2013; Soden, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palczewski and Kiser, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zomot et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science Discussions
AbbreviationOcean Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-0822

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