How to format your references using the Ocean Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lok, C.: Plans to reduce acceptable arsenic limit put on hold, Nature, 410, 503, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jung, H. and Karato S: Water-induced fabric transitions in olivine, Science, 293, 1460–1463, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Son, Y.-W., Cohen, M. L., and Louie, S. G.: Half-metallic graphene nanoribbons, Nature, 444, 347–349, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
He, W., Huang, K., Ning, N., Ramanathan, K., Li, G., Jiang, Y., Sze, J., Shi, L., Zhao, R., and Pei, J.: Enabling an integrated rate-temporal learning scheme on memristor, Sci. Rep., 4, 4755, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vacca, J. R.: Optical Networking Best Practices Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Das, V. V., Ariwa, E., and Rahayu, S. B. (Eds.): Signal Processing and Information Technology: First International Joint Conference, SPIT 2011 and IPC 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 1-2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIII, 301 p. 140 illus pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Frohlich, K. M., Sarachan, K. L., Todd, G. C., Basanta-Sanchez, M., Väre, V. Y. P., and Agris, P. F.: Post-Transcriptional Modifications of RNA: Impact on RNA Function and Human Health, in: Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine, edited by: Jurga, S., Erdmann (Deceased), V. A., and Barciszewski, J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 91–130, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science Discussions.

Blog post
Louisiana Wetlands Experiencing Sea Level Rise Four Times The Global Average:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Problems in Providing Education Overseas for Dependents of U.S. Personnel, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson, M. M.: Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: Before Series Debut, FX Says ‘Feud’ Will Endure, New York Times, 28th February, B6, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lok, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lok, 2001; Jung and Karato S, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jung and Karato S, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science Discussions
AbbreviationOcean Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-0822

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