How to format your references using the Occupational and Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Occupational and Environmental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnstone RA. The evolution of inaccurate mimics. Nature 2002;418:524–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otsuka K, Karato S-I. Deep penetration of molten iron into the mantle caused by a morphological instability. Nature 2012;492:243–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ortega F, Escaso F, Sanz JL. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain. Nature 2010;467:203–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zheng Y, Josefowicz SZ, Kas A, et al. Genome-wide analysis of Foxp3 target genes in developing and mature regulatory T cells. Nature 2007;445:936–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hao L, Lawrence J. Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2006.
An edited book
Gao F, Shi K, Li S, editors. Computational Methods for Molecular Imaging. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
van Schalkwyk GJ, Hoi KKM. Youths’ Reasoning About Higher Education in Macao. In: King RB, Bernardo ABI, eds. The Psychology of Asian Learners: A Festschrift in Honor of David Watkins. Singapore: : Springer 2016. 71–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Plant Fungi Impact How Monarch Butterflies Fight Disease. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Federal and State Universal Service Programs and Challenges to Funding. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boysen J. The ESCRT machinery, required for endosomal trafficking, is a pH-signaling platform. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. FREELANCERS WIN IN COPYRIGHT CASE. New York Times. 2001;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOccupational and Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationOccup. Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)1351-0711
ISSN (online)1470-7926
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles