How to format your references using the Nutrition and Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrition and Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell N. Joint European plan will tackle Africa’s killer diseases. Nature 2003; 421: 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bloch JI, Boyer DM. Grasping primate origins. Science 2002; 298: 1606–1610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sinclair ARE, Mduma S, Brashares JS. Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey system. Nature 2003; 425: 288–290.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pang B, Cheng S, Sun S-P, An C, Liu Z-Y, Feng X et al. Prognostic role of PIK3CA mutations and their association with hormone receptor expression in breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 6255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolf V. The Years. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Cioffi N, Rai M (eds.). Nano-Antimicrobials: Progress and Prospects. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Elias PM, Wakefield JS. Skin Barrier Function. In: Krutmann J, Humbert P (eds). Nutrition for Healthy Skin: Strategies for Clinical and Cosmetic Practice. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrition and Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew E. Little Farmer, Big Pharma: The Quest To Modify Plants To ‘Grow’ Medicines. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Review of the Tren Urbano Finance Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batson G. Head Start and at -risk students: Perceptions of administrators, practitioners, and parents. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Melnick DJ, Pearl MC, Warfield J. Make Forests Pay. New York Times. 2015; : A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrition and Diabetes
AbbreviationNutr. Diabetes
ISSN (online)2044-4052

Other styles