How to format your references using the Nutrition and Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrition and Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMullen K. Experimental physics, experimental art. Nature 2005; 434: 310–311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratcliffe JM, Nydam ML. Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world. Nature 2008; 455: 96–99.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erickson GM, Rogers KC, Yerby SA. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates. Nature 2001; 412: 429–433.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wakui K, Eto Y, Benichi H, Izumi S, Yanagida T, Ema K et al. Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent O. IP Telephony. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Osei-Bryson K-M, Mansingh G, Rao L (eds.). Knowledge Management for Development: Domains, Strategies and Technologies for Developing Countries. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Gobert J, Punch M. Because They Can. In: Pontell HN, Geis G (eds). International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2007, pp 98–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrition and Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew E. Newly Developed Artificial Limb Lets Amputees “Feel”. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Survey of the DOL Activities With Regard to Assistance Furnished to Non-Reservation Indians. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hemschik TK. Course designs, instructional strategies, and support systems in K–8 online education: A case study. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Reading by Numbers. New York Times. 2017; : BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrition and Diabetes
AbbreviationNutr. Diabetes
ISSN (online)2044-4052

Other styles