How to format your references using the Nutrition and Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrition and Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDonough WF. Geophysics. Mapping the Earth’s engine. Science 2007; 317: 1177–1178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finkelstein A, Taubman S. Health care policy. Randomize evaluations to improve health care delivery. Science 2015; 347: 720–722.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang J, Wang B, Qiu H. Coalescence and breakup of oppositely charged droplets. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 7123.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Higgins LJ, Yan F, Liu P, Liu H-W, Drennan CL. Structural insight into antibiotic fosfomycin biosynthesis by a mononuclear iron enzyme. Nature 2005; 437: 838–844.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1999.
An edited book
Dubey AK, Biswas A (eds.). India and Africa’s Partnership: A Vision for a New Future. 1st ed. 2016. Springer India: New Delhi, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Erozan YS, Tatsas A. Biliary Tract. In: Tatsas A (ed). Cytopathology of Liver, Biliary Tract, Kidney and Adrenal Gland. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2015, pp 103–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrition and Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mindfulness-based Therapy Shown To Reduce PTSD Symptoms In Veterans. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Remanufactured Parts in the Federal Vehicle Fleet Is Based On a Variety of Factors. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz W. Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Settle Last Border Dispute. New York Times. 2004; : A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrition and Diabetes
AbbreviationNutr. Diabetes
ISSN (online)2044-4052

Other styles