How to format your references using the Nutrition and Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrition and Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Denrell J. Sociology. Indirect social influence. Science 2008; 321: 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu X, Duncan JH. The effects of surfactants on spilling breaking waves. Nature 2003; 421: 520–523.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao J, Goldman AS, Hartwig JF. Oxidative addition of ammonia to form a stable monomeric amido hydride complex. Science 2005; 307: 1080–1082.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brierley CM, Fedorov AV, Liu Z, Herbert TD, Lawrence KT, Lariviere JP. Greatly expanded tropical warm pool and weakened Hadley circulation in the early Pliocene. Science 2009; 323: 1714–1718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros N, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Liatis S, Makrilakis K, Tentolouris N. Diabetic Emergencies. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Geddes CD, Lakowicz JR (eds.). Who’s Who in Fluorescence 2006. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Mahlke S, Minge M. Consideration of Multiple Components of Emotions in Human-Technology Interaction. In: Peter C, Beale R (eds). Affect and Emotion in Human-Computer Interaction: From Theory to Applications. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008, pp 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrition and Diabetes.

Blog post
Davis J. Ravens Know When They’ve Been Cheated, And Remember Who Did It For At Least A Month. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: Early Efforts Initiated but Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mani V. Empirical study of link between operations and financial performance for retailers. 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. An E.V. That Wraps Around a Wheelchair. New York Times. 2013; : AU2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrition and Diabetes
AbbreviationNutr. Diabetes
ISSN (online)2044-4052

Other styles