How to format your references using the Nutrients citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrients. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muro, M. MOUNT GRAHAM: Report Finds Squirrels Survived 3 Telescopes. Science 2000, 289, 228a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jarosz, D.F.; Lindquist, S. Hsp90 and Environmental Stress Transform the Adaptive Value of Natural Genetic Variation. Science 2010, 330, 1820–1824.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, J.E.; Melosh, H.J.; Greenberg, R. Impact-Induced Seismic Activity on Asteroid 433 Eros: A Surface Modification Process. Science 2004, 306, 1526–1529.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Van Wassenbergh, S.; Herrel, A.; Adriaens, D.; Huysentruyt, F.; Devaere, S.; Aerts, P. Evolution: A Catfish That Can Strike Its Prey on Land. Nature 2006, 440, 881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paoluzzi, A.; Pascucci, V.; Vicentino, M.; Baldazzi, C.; Portuesi, S. Geometric Programming for Computer-Aided Design; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470013885.
An edited book
Lei, L. Stochastic Petri Nets for Wireless Networks; Lin, C., Zhong, Z., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319168821.
A chapter in an edited book
Falke, S.; Kapur, D. Inductive Decidability Using Implicit Induction. In Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 13th International Conference, LPAR 2006, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, November 13-17, 2006. Proceedings; Hermann, M., Voronkov, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 45–59 ISBN 9783540482819.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrients.

Blog post
Andrew, E. New Synthetic Platelets Capable Of Rapidly Stopping Bleeding (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Student Aid: Progress in Integrating Pell Grant and Direct Loan Systems and Processes, but Critical Work Remains; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Avila, R. Support and Resources for Homeless Families: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Taylor Swift’s Single Breaks Spotify Record. New York Times 2017, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrients
ISSN (online)2072-6643
ScopeFood Science

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