How to format your references using the Nutrients citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrients. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parak, F. Rudolf L. Mössbauer (1929-2011). Nature 2011, 478, 325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Löytynoja, A.; Goldman, N. Phylogeny-Aware Gap Placement Prevents Errors in Sequence Alignment and Evolutionary Analysis. Science 2008, 320, 1632–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hristov, T.S.; Miller, S.D.; Friehe, C.A. Dynamical Coupling of Wind and Ocean Waves through Wave-Induced Air Flow. Nature 2003, 422, 55–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koller, G.; Berkebile, S.; Oehzelt, M.; Puschnig, P.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.; Netzer, F.P.; Ramsey, M.G. Intra- and Intermolecular Band Dispersion in an Organic Crystal. Science 2007, 317, 351–355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beach, D. The Responsible Conduct of Research; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 1996; ISBN 9783527604005.
An edited book
Yee, J.T. Technology Integration to Business: Focusing on RFID, Interoperability, and Sustainability for Manufacturing, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management; Oh, S.-C., Ed.; Springer: London, 2013; ISBN 9781447143895.
A chapter in an edited book
Higa, C.K.; Chorpita, B.F. Evidence-Based Therapies: Translating Research into Practice. In Handbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and Adolescents: Bridging Science and Practice; Steele, R.G., Elkin, T.D., Roberts, M.C., Eds.; Issues in Clinical Child Psychology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008; pp. 45–61 ISBN 9780387736907.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrients.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Fearsome Dinosaur With Ludicrously Tiny Arms Means T. Rex Wasn’t Alone (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Health Information Technology: Federal Agencies’ Experiences Demonstrate Challenges to Successful Implementation; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Locicero, L.M. The Effects of Vertical Casting Position in Reinforced Concrete. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. The One And Only: The Footprints On a Path to Gold. New York Times 2012, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrients
ISSN (online)2072-6643
ScopeFood Science

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