How to format your references using the Nutrients citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrients. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C. Computer science. What do robots dream of? Science 2006, 314, 1093–1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather, M.J.; Blake, D.R. F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Nature 2012, 484, 168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Persha, L.; Agrawal, A.; Chhatre, A. Social and ecological synergy: local rulemaking, forest livelihoods, and biodiversity conservation. Science 2011, 331, 1606–1608.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, X.; Huang, D.; Cao, K.; Wang, M.; Zakeeruddin, S.M.; Grätzel, M. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide multilayer films as efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wing, C. How Your House Works; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118286074.
An edited book
The Neuropsychology of Women; Fletcher-Janzen, E., Ed.; Issues of Diversity in Clinical Neuropsychology; Springer: New York, NY, 2009; ISBN 9780387769073.
A chapter in an edited book
Stamper, J.; Barnes, T.; Croy, M. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding. In Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part II; Aleven, V., Kay, J., Mostow, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 31–40 ISBN 9783642134364.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrients.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Official Healthy Food Guide Hasn’t Changed In 20 Years: Five Things That Need Updating Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Comments on Montana’s Entitlement to Restoration of Rehabilitation Funds]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford, V. Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alcindor, Y. ‘Auntie Maxine,’ House Veteran Who’s Had It Up to Here With Trump. New York Times 2017, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrients
ISSN (online)2072-6643
ScopeFood Science

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