How to format your references using the Nutrients citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrients. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood, C.L. Environment. Environmental change and the ecology of infectious disease. Science 2014, 346, 1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruskov, R.; Tahan, C. Quantum Processing. Catching the quantum sound wave. Science 2014, 346, 165–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shoemaker, C.J.; Eyler, D.E.; Green, R. Dom34:Hbs1 promotes subunit dissociation and peptidyl-tRNA drop-off to initiate no-go decay. Science 2010, 330, 369–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choi, S.; Yu, X.; Jongpaiboonkit, L.; Hollister, S.J.; Murphy, W.L. Inorganic coatings for optimized non-viral transfection of stem cells. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, R.B. 20% Chance of Rain; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118116371.
An edited book
H2Karst Research in Limestone Hydrogeology; Mudry, J., Zwahlen, F., Bertrand, C., LaMoreaux, J.W., Eds.; Environmental Earth Sciences; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319061382.
A chapter in an edited book
Griol, D.; Molina, J.M. Context-Aware Conversational Agents Using POMDPs and Agenda-Based Simulation. In User-Centric Technologies and Applications: Proceedings of the CONTEXTS 2011 Workshop; Molina, J.M., Corredera, J.R.C., Pérez, M.F.C., Ortega-García, J., Barbolla, A.M.B., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 29–36 ISBN 9783642199073.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrients.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Tomorrow’s Battery Technologies That Could Power Your Home Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, M. A Latina’s educational attainment and her observations of foster youth’s educational struggles: A narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J. Start-Up Imagines Driverless Vehicles That Can Tell You Where They’re Going. New York Times 2016, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrients
ISSN (online)2072-6643
ScopeFood Science

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