How to format your references using the Nutrients citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrients. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duster, T. Medicine. Race and Reification in Science. Science 2005, 307, 1050–1051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armatas, G.S.; Kanatzidis, M.G. Hexagonal Mesoporous Germanium. Science 2006, 313, 817–820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, J.; Benlekbir, S.; Rubinstein, J.L. Electron Cryomicroscopy Observation of Rotational States in a Eukaryotic V-ATPase. Nature 2015, 521, 241–245.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ruiz-Pesini, E.; Mishmar, D.; Brandon, M.; Procaccio, V.; Wallace, D.C. Effects of Purifying and Adaptive Selection on Regional Variation in Human MtDNA. Science 2004, 303, 223–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, F.B. Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470692424.
An edited book
Economic Planning and Industrial Policy in the Globalizing Economy: Concepts, Experience and Prospects; Yülek, M., Ed.; Public Administration, Governance and Globalization; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 13; ISBN 9783319064734.
A chapter in an edited book
Konow, J.; Schwettmann, L. The Economics of Justice. In Handbook of Social Justice Theory and Research; Sabbagh, C., Schmitt, M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2016; pp. 83–106 ISBN 9781493932153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrients.

Blog post
Fang, J. To Save Energy, Blind Cavefish Got Rid of Their Circadian Rhythm Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Improvements in Certain District of Columbia Public Schools’ Administrative Operations; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salters, D.D. The Effects of Independent Reading on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Sixth-Grade Students. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Jump in Prostitution Arrests in Super Bowl Week. New York Times 2014, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrients
ISSN (online)2072-6643
ScopeFood Science

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