How to format your references using the Nutrients citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrients. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nestler, E.J. Obituary: Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic (1937-2003). Nature 2003, 425, 471.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown, M.E.; Schaller, E.L. The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris. Science 2007, 316, 1585.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penmatsa, A.; Wang, K.H.; Gouaux, E. X-Ray Structure of Dopamine Transporter Elucidates Antidepressant Mechanism. Nature 2013, 503, 85–90.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yilmaz, O.H.; Valdez, R.; Theisen, B.K.; Guo, W.; Ferguson, D.O.; Wu, H.; Morrison, S.J. Pten Dependence Distinguishes Haematopoietic Stem Cells from Leukaemia-Initiating Cells. Nature 2006, 441, 475–482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimitriadis, G. Introduction to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017; ISBN 9781118756478.
An edited book
Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits; Al-Khayri, J.M., Jain, S.M., Johnson, D.V., Eds.; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319225173.
A chapter in an edited book
Mussbacher, G.; Amyot, D.; Weiss, M. Visualizing Early Aspects with Use Case Maps. In Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development III; Rashid, A., Aksit, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 105–143 ISBN 9783540751618.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrients.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Chris Hadfield Performs ‘Space Oddity’ (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA: Status of Plans for Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigler, W.H. Increased Substance Abuse Treatment for Adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. An E.V. That Wraps Around a Wheelchair. New York Times 2013, AU2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrients
ISSN (online)2072-6643
ScopeFood Science

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