How to format your references using the Numerical Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Numerical Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Monastersky, R.: Shooting for the moon. Nature. 460, 314–315 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Einstein, T.L., Stasevich, T.J.: Materials science. Epitaxial growth writ large. Science. 327, 423–424 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Cross, C.P., Cyrenne, D.-L.M., Brown, G.R.: Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 3, 2486 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Berkley, A.J., Xu, H., Ramos, R.C., Gubrud, M.A., Strauch, F.W., Johnson, P.R., Anderson, J.R., Dragt, A.J., Lobb, C.J., Wellstood, F.C.: Entangled macroscopic quantum States in two superconducting qubits. Science. 300, 1548–1550 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson Jr. MD, W.H., Moller MD, J.H.: Pediatric Cardiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Farber, J., Crichton, J., Snyder, O.P., Jr. eds: Retail Food Safety. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Sakurai, Y., Ueda, S., Iwasaki, A., Minato, S.-I., Yokoo, M.: A Compact Representation Scheme of Coalitional Games Based on Multi-Terminal Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams. In: Kinny, D., Hsu, J.Y.-J., Governatori, G., and Ghose, A.K. (eds.) Agents in Principle, Agents in Practice: 14th International Conference, PRIMA 2011, Wollongong, Australia, November 16-18, 2011. Proceedings. pp. 4–18. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Numerical Algorithms.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Cockatoos Can Draw Conclusions Too,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Projects and Policies Related to Deploying Broadband in Unserved and Underserved Areas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wester, A.M.: Readers’ trust, socio-demographic, and acuity influences in citizen journalism credibility for disrupted online newspapers, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mills, S.G.: The Child Again, (1927)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNumerical Algorithms
AbbreviationNumer. Algorithms
ISSN (print)1017-1398
ISSN (online)1572-9265
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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