How to format your references using the Numerical Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Numerical Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D.: Toxicogenomics gains impetus. Nature. 415, 4–5 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Brivanlou, A.H., Darnell, J.E., Jr: Signal transduction and the control of gene expression. Science. 295, 813–818 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Cramer, P., Bushnell, D.A., Kornberg, R.D.: Structural basis of transcription: RNA polymerase II at 2.8 angstrom resolution. Science. 292, 1863–1876 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woo, S.H., Choi, Y.Y., Kim, D.J., Bien, F., Kim, J.J.: Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring. Sci. Rep. 4, 6618 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhao, G.: Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore (2017)
An edited book
Anbar, R.D. ed: Functional Respiratory Disorders: When Respiratory Symptoms Do Not Respond to Pulmonary Treatment. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Bergeron, M., Conklin, D.: Temporal Patterns in Polyphony. In: Chew, E., Childs, A., and Chuan, C.-H. (eds.) Mathematics and Computation in Music: Second International Conference, MCM 2009, John Clough Memorial Conference New Haven, CT, USA, June 19-22, 2009. Proceedings. pp. 32–42. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Numerical Algorithms.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: The Sun Is Eerily Quiet, And Scientists Aren’t Sure Why,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: K-12 Education: Federal Funding for and Characteristics of Public Schools with Extended Learning Time. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2015)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huynhle, M.: High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Increases Resilience against Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Drosophila Larvae, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T.: Open Markets, but Maybe Not Open Minds, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNumerical Algorithms
AbbreviationNumer. Algorithms
ISSN (print)1017-1398
ISSN (online)1572-9265
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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