How to format your references using the Numerical Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Numerical Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D.: Gas revolution. The gas surge. Introduction. Science. 344, 1464–1467 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowe, M.L., Goldin-Meadow, S.: Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entry. Science. 323, 951–953 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
White, N., Thompson, M., Barwise, T.: Understanding the thermal evolution of deep-water continental margins. Nature. 426, 334–343 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woods, C.J., Malaisree, M., Long, B., McIntosh-Smith, S., Mulholland, A.J.: Computational assay of H7N9 influenza neuraminidase reveals R292K mutation reduces drug binding affinity. Sci. Rep. 3, 3561 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murray, A.: The Complete Software Project Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Nyhan, J.: Computation and the Humanities: Towards an Oral History of Digital Humanities. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Gimeno Gasca, C., Celma Pueyo, S., Aldea Chagoyen, C.: Adaptation Loop. In: Celma Pueyo, S. and Aldea Chagoyen, C. (eds.) CMOS Continuous-Time Adaptive Equalizers for High-Speed Serial Links. pp. 81–105. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Numerical Algorithms.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Anti-Science Senator Will Oversee Committee Covering NASA and Science Funding,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: DOD Needs to Improve Process for Ensuring Interoperability of Telecommunications Switches. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gray, J.L.: Overcoming the threat of racial stereotyping in the workplace, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: For the Yankees, A Chill in the Air, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNumerical Algorithms
AbbreviationNumer. Algorithms
ISSN (print)1017-1398
ISSN (online)1572-9265
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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