How to format your references using the Numerical Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Numerical Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bilham, R.: Geophysics. Dangerous tectonics, fragile buildings, and tough decisions. Science. 311, 1873–1875 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohr, J.J., Forsberg, R.: Remote sensing: searching for new islands in sea ice. Nature. 416, 35 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
van Os, J., Kenis, G., Rutten, B.P.F.: The environment and schizophrenia. Nature. 468, 203–212 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bugoslavsky, Y., Cohen, L.F., Perkins, G.K., Polichetti, M., Tate, T.J., Gwilliam, R., Caplin, A.D.: Enhancement of the high-magnetic-field critical current density of superconducting MgB2 by proton irradiation. Nature. 411, 561–563 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega, P.: Geographical Information and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Chiti, E., Mattarella, B.G. eds: Global Administrative Law and EU Administrative Law: Relationships, Legal Issues and Comparison. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Felici, M.: Trust Strategies and Policies in Complex Socio-technical Safety-Critical Domains: An Analysis of the Air Traffic Management Domain. In: Guelfi, N. and Buchs, D. (eds.) Rapid Integration of Software Engineering Techniques: Third International Workshop, RISE 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, September 13-15, 2006. Revised Selected Papers. pp. 51–65. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Numerical Algorithms.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Scientists Develop Bionic Pancreas For Type 1 Diabetics


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dobbs, J.: The Potential Use of PEI Modified Biochar for Different Environmental Applications, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Bolshoi Official Raises Attack Questions, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNumerical Algorithms
AbbreviationNumer. Algorithms
ISSN (print)1017-1398
ISSN (online)1572-9265
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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